Volume 91, Issue 1
March 1982, pages 1-95
pp 1-13 March 1982
Several velocity models on upper mantle regions of the world have been postulated during the last two decades. There has been a broad agreement amongst seismologists that upper mantle has got two transition zones, though the models differ in detail. These zones have been found to occur around ‘400 km’ and ‘650 km’ depth ranges with varying thicknesses of the zones. A limited number of such studies have been made on the upper mantle structure of the Indian subcontinent. High positive velocity gradients were reported to exist around the above depth range. Evidence for lateral heterogeneities has also been found. We address some problems like refinement of Indian upper mantle velocity models specially after considering the effect of scattering and attenuation on the short periodP-waves. The study of proper positioning of the cusps of the travel-time branches and their extension is essential as well. In our opinion, analysis of such problems would help in the better understanding of the nature of propagation of seismic waves and mechanism of earthquakes. Complexity of seismic signatures observed is another major problem and may also be taken into consideration.
pp 15-19 March 1982
Measurements of radon contents of the exholved gas emanating from several hot water springs along the Western Coast of India are reported here.
Concentration of radon in gas phase of individual springs varied in general, directly with the surface temperature of the water emerging from the respective springs, and showed little variation with time.
Radon measurements were carried out continuously for about two years at two hot springs located at Ganeshpuri and Sathivali in the coastal area of Northern Maharashtra. The distant tremors did not cause any variation in the radon content. There was no marked local seismic activity during the period of observations, and the levels of radon stayed essentially constant.
The measurements were also carried out at a hot spring in Assam, for about 8 months. These also did not show any significant variation; this period too lacked any marked local seismicity.
pp 21-28 March 1982
Sixteen geoelectrical soundings were taken in the western part of the district Allahabad lying between the rivers Ganga and Yamuna during the month of April 1976. The area of investigation forms the eastern part of Doab of rivers Ganga and Yamuna. Schlumberger configuration of geoelectrical soundings was used and the data were interpreted mainly by curve matching technique and theoretically calculated multi-layer model curves. Based on the results of the investigation it has been possible to draw geoelectrical section along two profiles and prepare a contour map of resistant substratum representing the base of the alluvial cover. A fence diagram has been constructed to represent the result of all the sounding data. The results of the present geophysical study have provided valuable information regarding the subsurface geology of this virgin area and also the potential aquifer zones which could be exploited for regular supply of groundwater for irrigation and drinking purposes.
pp 29-41 March 1982
The paper presents a fast automatic approach to solve the inverse resistivity problem, assisted by optimization, which is a non-linear model-fitting technique. The selected inverse problems are ill-posed and the inverse solution is defined by ‘best fit’ in the sense of least-squares. Formulations are presented in a systematic manner for Newton’s method, least squares method and Marquardt’s modification (ridge regression) method based on local linearization of non-linear problem. The convergence of least-squares method and Marquardt’s method, to provide a robust solution, are first tested on a theoretical model and effectiveness of Marquardt’s method is demonstrated, and then two-field apparent resistivity curves from Banda district, India are interpreted and discussed.
pp 43-54 March 1982
Fourier spectrum of the gravity effect due to a horizontal slab with lateral variation of density is derived. By analysing this spectrum a procedure is formulated to determine the parameters of the causative bodyviz. depths to the upper and lower surfaces, width of the horizontal portion having the lateral density variation and the lateral density gradient. Two synthetic models and a field example are discussed to establish the validity of the procedure formulated. This is much simpler than Gendzwill’s type curves method.
pp 55-63 March 1982
The magnetite-quartzites of Nainarmalai forms part of a large iron ore belt of Tamilnadu which occurs in a high grade granulite terrain. They are associated with basic granulites and gneisses. Mineralogical and chemical studies indicate their similarities with other metasedimentary iron ores.
pp 65-73 March 1982
The Gaik Granite is a part of the Ladakh batholith outcropping between Gaik and Kiari in NW Himalaya. This is a pink porphyritic granite rich in biotite and poor in hornblende. Rb-Sr analyses have been made on six whole-rock samples of the Gaik Granite. Though the samples are poorly enriched in radiogenic Sr, they define a reliable isochron corresponding to an age of 235±13 (2σ) m.y. and initial87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0·7081±0·0004 (2σ). Biotite, plagioclase and potash feldspar fractions separated from two of the samples have yielded a much younger mineral isochron at 30±1·5 m.y. indicating a nearly complete redistribution of Sr isotopes between mineral phases at a time much later than the primary emplacement of the granite. The present results show that at least some components of the Ladakh batholith are of Permo-Triassic age. These rocks were isotopically re-equilibrated on a mineral scale during Upper Oligocene in response to the Himalayan orogeny.
pp 75-77 March 1982
The mobile geomagnetic measurements made during 1970–73 by NGRI across the Indian Peninsula between Alibag and Kalingapatnam have been examined. It is noticed that the meanZ values after normal correction and the long periodZr/Hr ratio reveal different levels on the three different geological provincesviz., the Deccan traps, peninsular granites and the easternghat metamorphics.
pp 79-83 March 1982
In the present paper storm time variations and 27-day geomagnetic periodicity have been analysed to estimate the depth of the substitute conductor, assuming an infinitely (super) conducting core model of the earth. The advantage of using data from a restricted longitude range is that the uncertainties arising from lateral contrasts in the upper mantle and contributions from Sq current systems are considerably reduced. The result of the present analysis, which has been done in the time domain, gives a value of 522 km for the depth of the substitute conductor in case of storm time variations which rises to 870 km for 27-day recurrent storms. A higher value of the depth for 27-day variations indicate that the rise in conductivity inside the earth is not like a step function rather is a gradual one. The value of 522 km for storm time variations for the Indian region is smaller than the global average. This is natural to expect because the Indian sub-continent is known to be a tectonically active region.
pp 85-94 March 1982
The angular variation of elastic and inelastic scattering cross-sections has been calculated and used to study the energy deposition by precipitating electrons with the help of Monte Carlo Method. Monoenergetic, power law electron spectrum with isotropic and monodinational incidence starting at an altitude of 300 km have been used to obtain the angular and energy distributions at certain height intervals. In these calculations constant magnetic field has been used.
pp 95-95 March 1982 Erratum