• Volume 90, Issue 2

      July 1981,   pages  111-195

    • The Neogene/Quaternary boundary in India: A review

      D P Agrawal D K Bhatt Sheela Kusumgar R K Pant

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      The Neogene/Quaternary boundary has been variously defined in different continents. A global review of the problem shows that only the Olduvai event on the palaeomagnetic timescale may provide an universally acceptable isochronous datum for delineating this boundary. The N/Q boundary in the Siwaliks, Kashmir and the Andamans in India is defined in the light of recent research.

    • Short-period oscillations in outgoing longwave radiation over the summer monsoon region

      C Muthuvel

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      Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis is applied to daily outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) data to identify the major modes of oscillation over the summer monsoon region (7·5° N-32·5° N, 62·5° E-142·5° E) for two summers 1975 and 1977, each consisting of 120 days from 18 May through 14 September. Power spectrum analysis of time-dependent coefficients of the dominant eigenvectors exhibit spectral peaks in the long (<15 days) and short (4–8 days) period ranges. A detailed study is confined to 4–8 day filtered OLR perturbations. Standard deviation patterns of filtered OLR show large intraseasonal variability in the activity of monsoon disturbances over the Bay of Bengal. Lag-correlations reveal systematic westward movement of 4–8 day OLR perturbations from the Western Pacific to the Bay of Bengal in both summers.

      EOF analysis is also applied to 4–8 day filtered OLR data to further investigate possible teleconnections in disturbance activity between the Western Pacific and the Bay of Bengal. A compositing technique is utilized to detail the structural features (zonal wavelength and phase speed) of 4–8 day OLR disturbances. Composite diagrams for summer 1975 showed that OLR disturbances which originated near northeastern Burma moved west ward with phase speed (wavelength) of about 3–4° per day (≈20–25° longitude) reaching maximum intensity in the Bay of Bengal. In summer 1977, the disturbance activity in the Bay of Bengal was associated with OLR perturbations which originated in the Western Pacific and moved westward across the South China Sea and Indochina with phase speed (wavelength) of above 8° per day (40° longitude).

    • On the formation of a sharp layer of metallic constituents at sunrise in the lower thermosphere

      J S Shirke R Sridharan S P Gupta A D Danilov A A Pokhunkov V K Semenov V A Verfolomeev

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      Results are presented of two instrumented rocket experiments performed from an equatorial station, one at night and the other shortly after sunrise. The ion neutral composition as well as electron density and the amplitude of plasma irregularities were monitored. During the latter flight, a sharp layer of ionisation with its lower boundary at 100 km was observed. The layer had a half width close to 1 km and a peak electron density of 5·6× 104cm−3. Large amplitude of plasma irregularities, noticed on the negative gradient portion of the layer indicates a downward direction of the polarisation electric field during the observations. The resulting downward drift of photoions as they are produced at sunrise followed by the local decrease of the drift is suggested to be the cause of the layer formation at that altitude. The long lasting nature of such layers once identified on ionograms indicates that they are constituted of metallic ions possibly of micrometeoritic origin deposited overnight in the lower thermosphere. The required photoionisation rate of production of the metallic ions at sunris eis about 2 cm−3 sec−1.

    • Determination of partial geoidal parameters over the Indian sub-continent

      V K Gaur

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      The paper presents values of partial geoidal parametersN, ξ and η which define the departure of the geoid from the reference spheroid, at 1° intervals over the Indian subcontinent. These values represent contributions arising from the gravity anomaly data over the entire earth's surface, except for that from a 6°×6° element around the immediate neighbourhood of the point. Complete values of these parameters at a point can be obtained simply by adding to these partial values, contributions from the 6°×6° element circumscribing that point. The objective of the study was to provide a ready basis for updating the geoidal parameters at the initial reference point as and when the density and quality of local gravity data around it improve. These computations once made, would also facilitate calculation of geoidal parameters at a fairly large number of astro-geodetic stations apart from that at the initial reference point, which should lead to considerably more precise value of the absolute datum of the Indian geodetic dasystem.

    • Palaeoclimatic inferences from the behaviour of radiocarbon dates of carbonates from Sand Dunes of Rajasthan

      R V Krishnamurthy D P Agrawal V N Misra S N Rajaguru

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      Radiocarbon dates on pedogenic CaCO3, accumulated at various depths in a stabilised dune at Budha Pushkar, Rajasthan, show inversion with respect to ‘stratigraphy’. Occurrence of younger carbonates overlain by older ones at various levels, is interpreted in terms of a shift in climatic conditions causing pedogenic carbonates to be leached to greater depths. Based on this model, several wetter regions during the last 6000 years have been identified. The most significant shift from a dry to a wet phase seems to have taken place between 5000 and 4500 years ago. Conclusions drawn from this study is in agreement with that based on pollen data and extends this method as a potential palaeoclimatic indicator.

    • Thermoluminescence dating of pottery from Sringaverapura—A Ramayana site

      D P Agrawal N Bhandari B B Lal A K Singhvi

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      The first thermoluminescence (TL) dates of pottery from aRamayana associated site are reported. The TL dates for pre-NBPW Black-Slipped Ware levels are 730 and 765 B.C., while radiocarbon date takes the earliest Black Slipped Ware level (for which no TL dates are available) to 905 B.C. (uncorrected). For the OCW level, three TL dates are available which range from 1035 B.C. to 875 B.C. The early NBPW period believed to be associated with theRamayana episode will thus be post-750 B.C.

    • Rocket measurements of ozone concentrations in the stratosphere and mesosphere over Thumba

      B H Subbaraya Shyam Lal

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      A rocket-borne solar middle ultraviolet photometer has been developed at the Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad for the measurement of ozone concentrations at stratospheric and mesospheric heights. The instrument has now been flown successfully several times from thumba and ozone concentrations determined over an altitude range of 15 to 80 km. This paper describes the instrumentation, data analysis technique as well as the laboratory calibration procedures. Also presented are the results from four successful rocket experiments conducted during equinoctial months under an Indo-USSR collaborative programme for strato-mesospheric studies. The results show that at Thumba peak ozone concentrations vary between 2·2 and 3·1×1012 molecules per cc and the peak altitude varies from 25 to 29 km from flight to flight. In the altitude region above about 40 km the ozone concentrations over Thumba are lower than the standard mid-latitude model values, by a factor lying between 1·5 and 2·5.

    • Complex seismic signatures and narrow azimuthal study of Hindukush earthquakes

      Avadh Ram

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      About eighty earthquakes, exclusively from the Hindukush region, which were recorded at Gauribidanur seismic array (GBA) have been used in the present study. Short periodP-wave recordings upto 36 seconds were processed using adaptive cross-correlation filtering technique. The main objective of this exercise was to examine the signal complexities and seismic ray direction anomalies of these earthquakes which have identical epicentral distances and a narrow azimuthal range from GBA but different focal depths from 10 to 240 km. Slowness anomalies of the order of 1–4 sec/deg and azimuthal anomalies upto 6° have been found in this case. These deviations have been attributed to the upper mantle region between source and the receiver. Analysis of the data reveals that most of the events occurring at shallower depths had complex signatures as compared to the deeper events. The structure near the source region, complicated source functions and scattering confined to the crust-upper mantle near source are mainly responsible for complexity of the observed signals as the transmission path of the ray tubes from turning point to the recording stations is practically the same.

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