Volume 90, Issue 1
March 1981, pages 1-110
pp 1-26 March 1981
The refractory element-enriched inclusions found in the carbonaceous meteorites give cosmochemists a fascinating glimpse at processes which occurred near the birth of the solar system. Although many complications must still be unravelled, the weight of the available evidence indicates that many of these objects condensed directly from the solar nebula, and have remained relatively unaltered up to the present. Their mineralogical and chemical compositions therefore reflect conditions at the time of their formation. The most thoroughly studied of the inclusions are those from the Allende CV meteorite. These, in general, have mineral assemblages similar to those which would be predicted for nebular condensation. The mineralogical agreement is not strict, however, and also the bulk chemical compositions sometimes deviate markedly from expected trends. More work is required to understand these differences. A range of isotopic anomalies in many elements has been found, in these inclusions. Some of these suggest an extra-solar system origin for a part of the material in the inclusions. Although much less work has been done on the inclusions in the CM meteorites, current data indicate that they will prove to be at least as valuable as those from Allende. Chemical data show that some inclusions in the Murchison meteorite are more refractory than the most refractory Allende inclusions. Isotopic anomalies, including25Mg excesses and oxygen-16 enriched oxygen, indicate that, in spite of chemical and mineralogical differences, the Murchison and Allende inclusions contain common isotopic components, and are probably contemporaneous.
pp 27-38 March 1981
The region of bouncing electron beams in the earth’s magnetosphere can be unstable against a non-resonant electromagnetic lower hybrid instability. The instability is purely growing in the rest frame of the plasma, and can be excited either by the temperature anisotropy or the drift velocity of the bouncing electron beams. The growth rates of the instability decrease with the increase of cold electron density. Consequently the growth rate is maximum at the equator where the cold electron density is minimum. The intense turbulence generated by this instability could broaden the bouncing electron beams thereby explaining the observed wider cone width of the beams at the equator. The instability could generate magnetic pulsations in the frequency range of orderPc1−Pc3 with typical wavelength ≈ (3–10) km in the, magnetosphere during magnetic storms or substorms.
pp 39-46 March 1981
Preparation of a generalized chart of probable maximum precipitation (PMP) for the southern half of the Indian peninsula lying between lat. 8°N to 16°N has been attempted in this study. Maximum 1-day rainfall data of 70 to 80 years from 1891 for about 600 stations in the peninsular states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, South Karnataka and southern portions of Andhra Pradesh were used. In order to get appropriate values of PMP, envelope frequency factor (Km) curve based on the actual rainfall data of the region was prepared. This study has shown that one-day PMP estimates over this region range from about 25 cm to about 85 cm. The heavy rainfall received over the coastal areas of Tamil Nadu in association with the cyclonic disturbance of November 1976 was examined and it was found that this rainfall was nowhere near the PMP estimates for this area.
pp 47-53 March 1981
The Shillong plateau and Mikir Hills form a conspicuous feature in the geologically complex region of Northeastern India. From observations of geomagnetic variations at Shillong a consistent suppression of the vertical (Z) component of variation is noted. From previous analyses of a selected geomagnetic storm observed at Shillong, Ujjain and Jaipur, stations at nearly the same latitude, the complex demodulates ofZ variation at Shillong demonstrate this suppression. Results from a comparative study of bays and storm sudden commencements are also cited. An attempt to calculate induction vectors at Shillong was made but they were found to be indeterminate.
However, a case for the presence of induced current concentrations near Shillong is strong, when these characteristics of geomagnetic variations are considered in the context of regional geology. Shillong and the Mikir Hills are the intruded northeastern remnants of the Indian Shield, that have been transported into the Eastern Himalayan syntaxis. But the present data are insufficient to delineate the path of induced currents in the Shillong region or to estimate their intensity.
pp 55-62 March 1981
Mean diurnal variation ofH at low and equatorial latitudes is computed for days in the vicinity of passage of ‘quiet’ solar wind. It is shown that the prepassage magnitude of the diurnal variation is appreciably larger when compared to post-passage intervals at low latitudes but the difference vanishes in the electrojet region. It is suggested that the Sq current system moves towards dip equator immediately following quiet wind conditions relative to earlier periods. It is also shown that during conditions of stable solar wind, the solar wind proton density is inversely related to the electrojet strength, while at low latitudes outside the jet influence, there is no clear association.
pp 63-74 March 1981
Slowness and azimuthal anomalies provide valuable information about lateral inhomogeneities within the crust and mantle of the earth. Over 300 earthquakes (distance range 14°–36° and azimuth 0°–360°) recorded at Gauribidanur seismic array (GBA) in southern India, were analysed using adaptive processing techniques. Slowness anomalies upto 1·3 sec/deg and azimuthal anomalies upto 8° have been observed in the present analysis. Slowness anomaly patterns for Java trench, Mid-Indian oceanic ridge earthquakes are more consistent as compared to the events originating in the Himalayan and Hindukush regions. A significant feature of the azimuthal anomaly pattern was the distinct absence of any positive anomalies from earthquakes occurring in mid-oceanic ridge. These anomalies have also been analysed as a function of epicentral distance and are mainly attributed to the transition zones occurring between 400–700 km depth ranges in the Indian upper mantle regions. Relative residuals between the stations of GBA have very little dependence on azimuth and distance. An anomalous structure beneath the array in the direction of the Java trench region (azimuth 116–126°) has been postulated on the basis of large systematic slowness vectors observed.
pp 75-83 March 1981
A new variant of the four-electrode system is proposed for geophysical resistivity investigations, particularly for profiling over conductive bodies. Model tank resistivity profiling experiments with Wenner, Schlumberger and the proposed T-shaped four-electrode arrays were carried out over a thin conducting vein type model to evaluate the efficacy of the new array. The proposed array appears to possess a larger response, a greater depth of investigation and a higher vertical resolution in detecting conducting bodies, as compared to the two-conventional arrays.
pp 85-89 March 1981
Laboratory determination of the piezoelectric activity (PEA) of geological samples is a prerequisite for the piezoelectric method of geophysical prospecting in the search for mineral deposits associated with quartz. The more commonly used laboratory methods, both static and dynamic, are not convenient from several considerations.
A simple method for PEA estimation of rocks which retains the advantages of both dynamic as well as static methods while dispensing with their drawbacks is described in this paper. It is well suited for large and representative geological samples, while the experimental conditions are comparable to those met with under field conditions.
pp 91-103 March 1981
Natural intensity, susceptibility, and Koenigsberger ratio were determined and studies of Rayleigh loops, and high field hysteresis, and variation of susceptibility with temperature from −196° C to Curie temperature were made on a number of magnetite-quartzite and pyroxene, granulite samples from Tamil Nadu. FeO, Fe2O3, and TiO2 proportions were estimated and cell dimensions were determined. From the magnetic studies it is inferred that in general the samples contain predominantly multidomain grains. In a few cases single-domain particles are detected, while in a few other samples a mixture of superparamagnetic particles and single domain states could be inferred. The relative remanence ratio is found to increase with coercive force. The ferromagnetic mineral in magnetite-quartzites is pure magnetite with a little alteration to hematite while in pyroxene granulites it is a titaniferous magnetite with a small percentage of TiO2. It is probable that the cell dimensions are dependent on oxidation in magnetites, and on the content of TiO2 in titaniferous magnetites.
pp 105-110 March 1981
A simulation technique has been developed to estimate the integrated atmospheric water content over oceans using the 19·35 and 22·235 GHz brightness temperature data from satellite microwave radiometer (SAMIR) on board the Indian satellite Bhaskara. The results obtained have been compared with those from linear statistical regression and empirical methods as well as from the nearest radiosonde observations. Based on the simulation method, a map of total precipitable water for some of the Bhaskara passes in July 1980 over Bay of Bengal is given. The possible applications of such maps in the study of Indian summar monsoon and boundary layer characteristics have been pointed out.