• Volume 89, Issue 1

      March 1980,   pages  1-119

    • Some aspects of geochemistry of pyrophyllite and diaspore deposits of Bundelkhand complex

      Rajendra P Sharma

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      Pyrophyllite and diaspore contain significantly enriched amounts of loss mobile elements like Ti and Cr by a factor of about 3 and Zr by a factor of about 2 as compared to Bundelkhand rocks and granites. This pattern suggests a bauxiticlaterite type of origin for pyrophyllite and diaspore occurrences in the Bundelkhand complex. This feature is comparable with the laterites of Kot area in western India. Phase boundaries of kaolinite and diaspore as a function of pH, pSi, and pA1 suggest that these minerals have formed in a very low dissolved Si (1 ppm) environment. Incongruent and congruent dissolution of kaolinite seem to be responsible for depletion of Si and A1 during lateritisation. This fact is supported by the balance calculations carried out with Ti as an index element.

    • A study of the serpentinisation in the Vempalle dolomitic limestones near Pulivendala, Cuddapah District

      A N Vyasa Rao M S Murty

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      The calcite-dolomite ratio of the Vempalle dolomitic limestones, serpentinised dolomitic limestones, and serpentines from the mineralised zone of the asbestos is determined by infrared spectroscopy. The ratio varies between 2 and 5·4 in the dolomitic limestones, between 1 and 1·5 in the serpentinised dolomitic limestones and it is taken as zero in the serpentines as both calcite and dolomite bands are absent in their infrared absorption spectra. The release of calcite during the serpentinisation is identified, which confirms the formation of serpentine.

    • Age of Saurashtra miliolites by U-Th decay series methods: possible implications to their origin

      N Hussain N Bhandari K R Ramanathan B L K Somayajulu

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      The miliolite deposits of Saurashtra have been dated by234U,230Th,231Pa and14C methods. Concordant ages of 105 years using the U decay series isotopes are obtained which agree with the ages of the coral reefs of Okha-Dwaraka coast suggesting a contemporaneous origin for both. The lower14C ages (≤40,000 years) may be due to a recent influx of seawater or ground water. Quartz and clay minerals together constitute only ≤10% by weight, as such the aeolian characteristics of quartz grains may not be relevant to the origin of the miliolites.

    • A gradient method for interpreting magnetic anomalies due to horizontal circular cylinders, infinite dykes and vertical steps

      I V Radhakrishna Murthy C Visweswara Rao G Gopala Krishna

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      A new method of interpreting magnetic anomalies of arbitrarily-magnetised horizontal circular cylinders, dipping dykes and vertical steps is presented. The method makes use of both horizontal and vertical gradients of the magnetic field of the model under consideration, rather than the observed magnetic anomaly. Vertical and horizontal gradients are calculated from the observed anomalies, and plotted one against the other to find out the locus of tip of the resultant gradient vector. This locus is a symmetrical curve for each of the three models mentioned above. The properties of these curves are used to deduce the various parameters of these models and the direction of magnetisation.

    • Finite element modelling for evaluation of apparent resistivity over complex structures

      V K Gaur G C Nayak P K Gupta

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      The paper presents a computational algorithm designed for efficient modelling of apparent resistivity over complex geological structures, using finite element method. The algorithm can be used to study variations of apparent resistivities using any electrode configuration at any point on the earth’s surface, not necessarily regular. A Schlumberger apparent resistivity sounding curve over a buried anticline, is presented here as an example and compared with the corresponding analytical curve, to demonstrate the correctness of the FEM algorithm.

      The various potential derivatives required for the computation of apparent resistivities evaluated through different electrode configurations have been obtained by calculating the ‘influence coefficients’ using reciprocal theorems, an approach successfully applied in structural engineering. In essence, a set of self balancing nodal currents, obtained from the appropriate derivative(s) of the shape functions of the elements contributing to the point of observation, is applied as the load vector.

      The resulting quantities corresponding to the potential distribution in traditional finite element method, then, turn out to be the potential derivatives at the point of observation for different positions of the current electrodes. These are known as influence coefficients.

      The continuum nature of the domain beyond the region of interest has been modelled by using ‘infinite elements’ across which the potential is assumed to decay exponentially.

    • Palaeoclimate, stratigraphy and prehistory in north and west Rajasthan

      D P Agrawal P S Datta Zahid Hussain R V Krishnamurthy V N Misra S N Rajaguru P K Thomas

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      Quaternary formations in western Rajasthan are of fluvial, locustrinal and aeolian origins. Fossil gravel ridge of Jayal in Nagaur District is one of the earliest quaternary formations so far recorded in the region. A rich lower palaeolithic habitation-cum-workshop site has been discovered in association with the gravel ridge. Multiple evidence for climatic change in the area during the quaternary period is discussed.

    • An application of complex demodulation technique to geomagnetic data and conductivity anomaly studies

      A K Agarwal B P Singh N Nityananda

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      The method of complex demodulation has been used here to compute the amplitude and phase of a signal present in a geomagnetic series using, Banks’ method. It is found that the results are quite accurate when four or more continuous cycles of the signal of interest are present. The same limitations have also been observed when band-pass filters are used to isolate a signal. The information on phase is always correct. It is concluded that complex demodulation will give correct results for periodic variations like 11-year, 27-day, Sq or pulsations; but will give small values of amplitude for signals like sudden impulses or bays. The latter is not a limitation in conductivity studies where ratios likeZ/H, Z/D orH/D are mostly used in calculations. It has been shown that even with the records of one magnetic storm the cause of anomalies can be accurately identified which otherwise would need a large number of events.

    • Role of barotropic, baroclinic and combined barotropic-baroclinic instability for the growth of monsoon depressions and mid-tropospheric cyclones

      B N Goswami R N Keshavamurty V Satyan

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      A detailed barotropic, baroclinic and combined barotropic-baroclinic stability analysis has been carried out with mean monsoon zonal currents over western India, eastern India and S.E. Asia. The lower and middle tropospheric zonal wind profiles over western India are barotropically unstable. The structure and growth rate of these modes agree well with the observed features of the midtropospheric cyclones. Similar profiles over eastern India and S.E. Asia, however, are barotropically stable. This is attributed to weak horizontal shear, inherent to these profiles. The upper tropospheric profiles, on the other hand, are barotropically unstable throughout the whole region. The features of these unstable modes agree with those of observed easterly waves. The baroclinic and combined barotropic-baroclinic stability analyses show that the baroclinic effects are not important in tropics.

      Though the barotropic instability of the mean zonal current seems to be res ponsible for the initial growth of the mid-tropospheric cyclones, neither barotropic nor baroclinic instability of the mean zonal current seem to explain the observed features of the monsoon depressions.

    • Drift loss cone instability in the ring current and plasma sheet

      K G Bhatia G S Lakhina

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      The drift loss cone instability, propagating nearly transverse to the ambient magnetic field, is studied in the ring current plasma taking into account the relative driftU between electrons and protons due to density gradients. The growth rates attain maxima and then decrease as the wave number parallel to the magnetic fieldkII increases. The peak values of the growth rates, maximised with respect tokII, are enhanced by the increase in number density, electron temperature and loss cone index, and by the decrease in βt, the ratio of the proton thermal pressure to magnetic field pressure. The unstable frequencies fall in the range of 5 to 30Ωp with the growth rate γ ≥Ωp. In the ring current region betweenL=4 and 5, the instability will generate a strong turbulence in the frequency range between 5–500 Hz which can produce fluctuating electric fields 0. 5–5 mV/m and magnetic field 0.8–80mγ. This instability can also occur on the auroral field lines, which connect to the region of intense earthward plasma flow in the distant magnetotail and produce a broad band electrostatic noise.

    • Experimental evidence of gravity waves at 80–90 km altitude from OH night airglow observations

      Neeta H Majmudar P V Kulkarni

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      Measurements of intensities at two fixed wavelengths in the OH (7-2) band were carried out at Mt Abu (24.6° N, 76.7° E) from 1973–76 to estimate neutral temperature in the region of 80–90 km altitude. It was observed that on some nights the temperature in this region shows periodic oscillations throughout the night. It was found from statistical analysis that the periods of these fluctuations are comparable to the theoretically predicted periods of internal gravity waves.

      If the periodic temperature variations observed in this region are attributed to the influence of gravity waves, according to the Hines theory only the magnitude of the horizontal component of wave-induced wind velocity can be computed. Using the measured relative temperature fluctuations it is found that the magnitude is 15–30 m/sec.

    • Redefinition of the international spheroid 1930

      V Kigaur

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      The equatorial value of normal gravity and the length of the semi-major axis of the currently used International spheroid 1930, appear to be mutually inconsistent in the light of the new astronomical values forKM and ω adopted by the International Union of Astronomy in 1964. This note accordingly suggests a new value for the length of its semi-major axis to remove this inconsistency.

    • Pillow structures in serpentinite, Tagadur, Nuggehalli schist belt, Karnataka

      K S Sudhakar

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      Pillow structures developed in serpentinite is described from the Nuggehalli schist belt, Karnataka. Chemistry of the rock reveals that the serpentinite is a direct representation of mantle material.

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