• Volume 87, Issue 3

      March 1978,   pages  1-75

    • Nonlinear Rayleigh-Taylor instability in partially ionized plasma and the equatorial spread-F

      R K Jain A C Das

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      The nonlinear evolution of the collisional gravitation induced Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability in the equatorialF region is investigated taking into account the finite larmor radius (FLR) effects and the complete ion inertial term in ion equation of motion. A special class of coherent weakly nonlinear modes as solutions to the wave equation describing R-T instability driven modes is obtained. The leading nonlinear effects in the wave equation are found to appear throughVL, the ion diamagnetic drift which essentially gives the FLR corrections. It is shown that the R-T magnetic drift which essentially gives the FLR corrections. It is shown that the R-T modes in the equatorialF region can evolve into coherent, nonlinear, almost sinusoidal, stationary wave structures. These structures are found to travel with a constant phase velocity and to have slightly distorted sinusoidal shapes. These results seem to have a good agreement with many of the recent rocket and satellite observations of the equatorial spreadF irregularities.

    • Cavity radius estimation for contained peaceful nuclear explosions—An analytic approach

      M P Ranga Rao S K Sikka

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      An analytical method based on Penny-Taylor model has been modified and applied for the estimation of the final cavity radius for contained peaceful nuclear explosions. The calculated cavity radii for some nuclear explosions in granite, alluvium and sandstone rocks are in good agreement with measured values.

    • The ambient environment of the Gangetic sediments of chalcolithic period

      D P Agrawal M N Deshpande S N Rajaguru Bhaskar Roy

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      There is considerable controversy regarding the mode of deposition of the OCP culture-associated sediments in the Gangetic valley and their ecological implications. SEM and sedimentologic studies show a fluvial mode of deposition of sediments originally derived from a glacial environment.

    • Incursion of the Pacific Ocean Water into the Indian Ocean

      G S Sharma A D Gouveia Shubha Satyendranath

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      Using the data collected during the International Indian Ocean Expedition, maps showing the distribution of depth, acceleration potential, salinity and oxyty were prepared for the northeast monsoon for the four potential thermosteric anomaly surfaces: 160, 120, 80 and 60 cl/t. Zonal components of current aong 84°E were computed from the geopotential dynamic heights. From such an analysis, it became clear that low-salinity water from the Pacific intrudes into the western Indian Ocean through the Banda and Timor seas in the upper layers above 100 cl/t surface, while the North Indian Ocean Water penetrates towards the Eastern Archipelago below 100 cl/t surface. The South Equatorial Countercurrent and the Tropical Countercurrent are well depicted on the vertical section of zonal components as well as on the distribution of acceleration potential.

    • Total electron content at low latitudes

      Malkiat Singh H S Gurm M R Deshpande R G Rastogi G Sethia A R Jain A V Janve R K Rai V M Patwari B S Subbarao

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      Radio beacon from ATS-6 at 140 MHz was used to measure the changes in the polarization angle (Faraday rotation) at Bombay, Rajkot, Ahmedabad, Udaipur and Patiala during October 1975 to July 1976. In this paper, results of diurnal, seasonal and latitudinal variations in total electron content (TEC) derived from these measurements are reported. The amplitude of diurnal peak is found to be higher at Rajkot, Ahmedabad and Udaipur as compared to that at Patiala or Bombay, indicating that the peak of Appleton anomaly in the latitudinal variation of TEC was close to the latitude of Ahmedabad. The diurnal maximum of TEC occurs around the same time during summer and winter months. The peak electron content shows a semiannual variation at all the stations with large values in equinoxes as compared to winter and summer. The TEC at Bombay shows a seasonal anamoly with high values in winter as compared to summer. The paper describes the development of latitudinal anomaly with the time of the day for different seasons. This anomaly is maximum during 1000 to 1800 LT and is located between 12° and 14° N (dip latitude) in summer and equinoxes and at about 10°N in winter.

    • Theory for preliminary negative impulse in storm sudden commencement inH at equatorial stations

      R G Rastogi

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      It is shown that the storm sudden commencement (SSC) inH field at low latitude station consists of only a positive excursion when the interplanetary shock due to the solar plasma impinging on the magnetosphere is associated with a southward excursion of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). When the signature of SSC at low latitude station consists of a preliminary negative excursion preceding the main positive excursion of theH field, the solar plasma causing the compression is associated with a northward excursion of the IMF. It is suggested that the signature of SSC(H) at equatorial stations is the result of combined effect of the compression of magnetosphere by the solar plasma as well as due to the electric field effects associated with the velocity of the solar plasma (v) interacting with the northward component (Bz) of the interplanetary field (i.e.,E=−vxBz).

    • Some studies of the growth of monsoon disturbances

      R N Keshavamurty G C Asnani P V Pillai S K Das

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      The structure of the monsoon depression and the observed flow features prior to and at the time of monsoon depression formation (composite of 15 depressions) are examined. The composite monsoon depression (transient eddy) has a scale of 25° longitude and extends up to 300 mb and has the greast intensity at 700 mb. It shows north-north-east to south-south-west tilt in the lower levels indicating that it may draw upon zonal kinetic energy for its growth. The disturbance has lower temperatures to its west and tilts westwards with height indicating that eddy available potential energy is not converted from zonal available potential energy by large scale advection. There appears to be a reduction of vertical shear at the time of formation of monsoon depressions and this possibly aids cumulus convection.

      The profiles of potential vorticity indicate extremes (i) in the upper troposphere and (ii) at several midtropospheric levels in the region of the monsoon trough indicating the possibility of combined barotropic-baroclinic instability. Using multi-level quasi-geostrophic model and employing the eigin-value technique it is shown that the monsoon zonal current is notbaroclinically unstable. A barotropic stability analysis is also done for monsoon zonal current in the lower and middle tropospheres. It yields very slowly growing unstable modes at lower tropospheric levels with wave lengths of 2500 km and 5000 km.

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