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      Volume 128, Issue 10

      October 2016,   pages  1516a-1686

    • Table of Contents

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    • One hundred years of Lewis Chemical Bond!

      E ARUNAN E D JEMMIS V SUBRAMANIAN

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    • Bonding and Reactivity Patterns from Electrostatic Landscapes of Molecules

      SHRIDHAR R GADRE ANMOL KUMAR

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      The topographical analysis of molecular electron density (MED) and molecular electrostatic potential (MESP) offers insights into the bonding and reactivity patterns through the critical points (CPs) of these scalar fields. The MESP is found to be particularly useful for describing sites of electrophilic attack andweak intermolecular interactions. MESP is also shown to clearly distinguish between the lone pairs and π-delocalization. The concept of atoms in molecules (AIM) which has so far been primarily based on the gradients of MED, has recently been extended via the use of MESP. The portrayal of AIM through MESP clearly reveals the electron rich atoms in the molecule and also provides the details of the preferred direction of approach of an electrophile. This perspective briefly summarizes the prominent features of MESP topography and providesa future outlook.

    • Bader’s Theory of Atoms in Molecules (AIM) and its Applications to Chemical Bonding

      P SHYAM VINOD KUMAR V RAGHAVENDRA V SUBRAMANIAN

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      In this perspective article, the basic theory and applications of the “Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules” have been presented with examples from different categories of weak and hydrogen bonded molecular systems.

    • A computational study on structure, stability and bonding in Noble Gas bound metal Nitrates, Sulfates and Carbonates (Metal = Cu, Ag, Au)

      MANAS GHARA SUDIP PAN JYOTIRMOY DEB ANAND KUMAR UTPAL SARKAR PRATIM KUMAR CHATTARAJ

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      A density functional theory based study is performed to investigate the noble gas (Ng = Ar-Rn) binding ability of nitrates, sulfates and carbonates of noble metal (M). Their ability to bind Ng atoms is assessed through bond dissociation energy and thermochemical parameters like dissociation enthalpy and dissociation free energy change corresponding to the dissociation of Ng bound compound producing Ngand the respective salt. The zero-point energy corrected dissociation energy values per Ng atom for the dissociation process producing Ng atom(s) and the corresponding salts range within 6.0–13.1 kcal/mol in NgCuNO₃, 3.1–9.8 kcal/mol in NgAgNO₃, 6.0–13.2 kcal/mol in NgCuSO₄, 3.2–10.1 kcal/mol in NgAgSO₄, 5.1–11.7 kcal/mol in Ng₂Cu₂SO₄, 2.5–8.6 kcal/mol in Ng₂Ag₂SO₂, 8.1–19.9 kcal/mol in Ng₂Au2SO₂, 5.7–12.4 kcal/mol in NgCuCO₃, 2.3–8.0 kcal/mol in Ng₂Ag₂CO₃ and 7.3–18.2 kcal/mol in Ng₂Au₂CO₃, with a gradual increase in moving from Ar to Rn. For a given type of system, the stability of Ng bound analogues follows the order as Au > Cu > Ag. All dissociation processes are endothermic in nature whereas they become endergonic as well in most of the cases of Kr-Rn bound analogues at 298 K. Natural population analysis along with the computation of Wiberg bond indices, and electron density analyses provide insights into the nature of the Ng-M bonds. The Ng-M bonds can be represented as partial covalent bonds as supported by the different electron density descriptors.

    • Matrix isolation infrared spectra of O-H· · · π Hydrogen bonded complexes of Acetic acid and Trifluoroacetic acid with Benzene

      PUJARINI BANERJEE INDRANI BHATTACHARYA TAPAS CHAKRABORTY

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      Mid infrared spectra of two O–H· · · π hydrogen-bonded binary complexes of acetic acid (AA) and trifluoroacetic acid (F₃AA) with benzene (Bz) have been measured by isolating the complexes in an argon matrix at ∼8 K. In a matrix isolation condition, the O–H stretching fundamentals (νO−H) of the carboxylic acid groups of the two molecules are observed to have almost the same value. However, the spectral red-shifts of νO−H bands of the two acids on complexation with Bz are largely different, 90 and 150 cm⁻¹ for AA and F₃AA, respectively. Thus, the O–H bond weakening of the two acids upon binding with Bz in a non-interacting environment follows the sequence of their ionic dissociation tendencies (pKa) in aqueous media. Furthermore, ΔνO−H of the latter complex is the largest among the known π-hydrogen bonded binary complexes of prototypical O–H donors reported so far with respect to Bz as acceptor. It is also observed that the spectral shifts (ΔνO−H) of phenol-Bz and carboxylic acid-Bz complexes show similar dependence on the acidity factor (pKa). Electronic structure theory has been used to suggest suitable geometries of the complexes that are consistent with the measured IR spectral changes. Calculation at MP2/6-311++G (d, p) level predicts a T-shaped geometry for both AA-Bz and F₃AA-Bz complexes, and the corresponding binding energies are 3.0 and 4.5 kcal/mol, respectively. Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis has been performed to correlate the observed spectral behavior of the complexes with the electronic structure parameters.

    • The elusive ≡C-H· · ·O complex in the hydrogen bonded systems of Phenylacetylene: A Matrix Isolation Infrared and Ab Initio Study

      GINNY KARIR MARIYAM FATIMA K S VISWANATHAN

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      Hydrogen-bonded complexes of phenylacetylene (PhAc) with methanol (MeOH) and diethylether (DEE) were studied using matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy. This study specifically searched for the ≡CH · · ·O hydrogen bonded complex in these systems, which manifest a n-σ* interaction and which is a local minimum on the PhAc-MeOH potential surface, as in the case of PhAc-H2O heterodimer. This n-σ* local minimum eluded observation in gas phase studies and it was therefore thought interesting to look for this isomer in cryogenic matrices.While MeOH can interact with PhAc as both a proton donor (O-H· · ·π complex) or a proton acceptor (n-σ* complex), DEE can only manifest the n-σ* isomer. A comparison of the spectral shifts observed in the features of PhAc-MeOH and PhAc-DEE would therefore independently confirm the existence or not of n-σ* complex in both these systems. In addition to the n-σ* complex observed in both the above systems, the O-H· · · π complex was also discerned in the PhAc-MeOH system. These complexes have stabilization energy in the range of 8-25 kJ/mol. The experimental results were corroborated by computations performed at MP2 and M06-2X, levels of theory, using 6-311++G(d,p) and aug-cc-pVDZ basis sets. Single point calculations at the CCSD level of theory were also performed. Atoms-in-molecules (AIM), NBO and LMOEDA analysis were also performed to understand the nature of the intermolecular interactions in these complexes.

    • Why are Hydrogen Bonds Directional?

      ABHISHEK SHAHI ELANGANNAN ARUNAN

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      The recent IUPAC recommendation on the definition of hydrogen bonding points out that directionality is a defining characteristic of a hydrogen bond and the angle ∠X-H-Y is generally linear or 180◦. It also suggests that the X-H· · ·Y angle be greater than 110◦ for an interaction to be characterized as a hydrogenbond but does not provide any rationale for the same. This article reports a rationale for limiting the angle, based on the electron density topology using the quantum theory of atoms in molecules. Electron density topology for common hydrogen bond donors HF, HCl, HBr, HNC, HCN and HCCH are reported in this work. These calculations lead to an interesting observation that the atomic basins of H atom in all these donor molecules are limited justifying the restriction of hydrogen bond angle. Moreover, similar analysis on some hydrogen bonded complexes confirms that beyond this angle the acceptor atom Y starts interacting with the atomic basin on X. However, conclusions based on bond lengths and angles have to be treated with care and as the IUPAC recommendation points out that independent ‘evidence for bond formation’ in every case is important.

    • Analysis of an unusual hetero-halogen bonded trimer using charge density analysis: A case of concerted type I Br· · · Br and type II Br· · · Cl interactions

      MYSORE S PAVAN TAYUR N GURU ROW

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      The crystal structure of 4−bromo−2−chlorobenzoic acid generates an unusual triangular motif consisting of a hitherto uncharacterized Type I Br· · · Br contact along with two Type II Br· · · Cl interactions as edges of the triangle. The nature of such bonding is analyzed based on both experimental and theoretical chargedensity followed by topological analysis.

    • Understanding the effect of substitution on the formation of S. . .F chalcogen bond

      RAHUL SHUKLA DEEPAK CHOPRA

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      In this study, we have investigated the effect of substitution on the formation of S. . .F non-covalent interactions in XHS. . .FCH₃ complexes (X= −H, −F, −Cl, −OH, −OCH₃, −NH₂, −NHCH₃, −NO₂, −CN) at MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ level of theory. The formation of S. . .F chalcogen bonds was observed in all the cases, except for X = −H. The binding energy of the S. . .F non-covalent interactions is strongly dependent on the nature of the substituent groups. The energy decomposition analysis revealed that electrostatic and exchangeenergy component are the dominant contributors towards the stability of these interactions. The topological analysis established the presence of the S. . .F chalcogen bond due to the presence of a bond critical point exclusively between sulphur and fluorine atoms representing a closed-shell interaction. The natural bondorbital analysis shows that the stability of the interaction comes from a charge transfer from F(lp) to σ* (S-X) orbital transition.

    • The Effect of Hydration on the Cation-π Interaction Between Benzene and Various Cations

      VIKASH DHINDHWAL N SATHYAMURTHY

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      The effect of hydration on cation-π interaction in Mq+ BmWn (B = benzene; W = water; Mq+ =Na⁺, K⁺, Mg²⁺, Ca²⁺, Al³⁺, 0 ≤ n,m ≤ 4, 1≤ m + n ≤ 4) complexes has been investigated using ab initio quantum chemical methods. Interaction energy values computed at the MP2 level of theory using the 6-31G(d,p) basis set reveal a qualitative trend in the relative affinity of different cations for benzene and water in these complexes. The π–cloud thickness values for benzene have also been estimated for these systems.

    • Carbene→N⁺ Coordination Bonds in Drugs: A Quantum Chemical Study

      DEEPIKA KATHURIA MINHAJUL ARFEEN APOORVA A BANKAR PRASAD V BHARATAM

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      Coordination chemistry of bonds between main group elements and electron donating ligands as in L→E (where E is electron acceptor centre like C⁰, Si⁰, N¹, P¹, As¹, B¹ and L is an electron donating N-heterocyclic carbene) have been recently gaining attention. Many important drugs have nitrogen atom as an electron acceptor center and can be represented by two general formulae:(L→N←L) and L→N-R. Divalent N¹ compounds possess two lone pairs at central nitrogen and low nucleophilicity associated with them are found to be of importance. In this article, electronic structure analysis of drug molecules like picloxydine, chlorhexidine, and moroxydine were performed at B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. Evaluation of electron localization function (ELF), molecular orbitals, charge density, nucleophilicity, proton affinity and complexation energy estimation confirm the presence of coordination bonds (L→N←L) in the above mentioned drug molecules in their cationic state. Further, electronic structure analysis of drugs like clonidine, apraclonidine, brimonidine and xylazine indicated the presence of electronic structure similar to L→N-R systems.

    • Role of Lanthanide-Ligand bonding in the magnetization relaxation of mononuclear single-ion magnets: A case study on Pyrazole and Carbene ligated LnIII(Ln=Tb, Dy, Ho, Er) complexes

      TULIKA GUPTA GUNASEKARAN VELMURUGAN THAYALAN RAJESHKUMAR GOPALAN RAJARAMAN

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      Ab initio CASSCF+RASSI-SO+SINGLE_ANISO and DFT based NBO and QTAIM investigations were carried out on a series of trigonal prismatic M(BcMe)₃ (M = Tb(1), Dy(2), Ho(3), Er(4), [BcMe]⁻ = dihydrobis (methylimidazolyl) borate) and M(BpMe)₃ (M = Tb(1a), Dy(2a), Ho(3a), Er(4a) [BpMe]⁻ = dihydrobis (methypyrazolyl) borate) complexes to ascertain the anisotropic variations of these two ligand field environments and the influence of Lanthanide-ligand bonding on the magnetic anisotropy. Among all the complexes studied, only 1 and 2 show large Ucal (computed energy barrier for magnetization reorientation) values of 256.4 and 268.5 cm⁻¹, respectively and this is in accordance with experiment. Experimentally only frequency dependent χ” tails are observed for complex 1a and our calculation predicts a large Ucalof 229.4 cm⁻¹ for this molecule. Besides these, none of the complexes (3, 4, 2a, 3a and 4a) computed to possess large energy barrier and this is affirmed by the experiments. These observed differences in the magnetic properties are correlated to the Ln-Ligand bonding. Our calculations transpire comparatively improved Single-Ion Magnet (SIM) behaviour for carbene analogues due to the more axially compressed trigonal prismatic ligand environment. Furthermore, our detailed Mulliken charge, spin density, NBO and Wiberg bond analysis implied stronger Ln...H–BH agostic interaction for pyrazole analogues. Further, QTAIM analysis reveals the physical nature of coordination, covalent, and fine details of the agostic interactions in all the eight complexes studied. Quite interestingly, for the first time, using the Laplacian density, we are able to quantify the prolate and oblate nature of the electron clouds in lanthanides and this is expected to have a far reaching outcome beyond the examples studied.

    • Structural, vibrational and bonding properties of hydro-nitrogen solids under high pressure: An ab-initio study

      G VAITHEESWARAN N YEDUKONDALU B MOSES ABRAHAM

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      Hydro-nitrogen solids are potential high energy density materials (HEDMs) due to high mass ratio of nitrogen which find wide range of applications as propellants and explosives. In the present work, we report the structural and vibrational properties of Tetramethyl Ammonium Azide (TMAA) and HydroZonium Azide(HZA) using density functional theory calculations by treating weak intermolecular interactions. The obtained ground state parameters using vdW-TS method are in good agreement with the experimental data. The pressure dependent lattice constants, compressibility and equation of state are discussed. The obtained equilibrium bulk moduli show the soft nature of these materials. The compressibility curves reveal that these compounds are highly compressible along crystallographic a-axis.We have also calculated the zone-center phonon frequencies and made a complete analysis of vibrational spectra at ambient as well as at high pressure. Contraction and elongation of C-H and N-H (NH₃ stretching) bonds under pressure lead to blue- and red-shift of the frequencies in the mid-IR region for TMAA and HZA compounds, respectively

    • Anomalous Lithium Adsorption Propensity of Monolayer Carbonaceous Materials: A Density Functional Study

      SWATI PANIGRAHI DEIVASIGAMANI UMADEVI G NARAHARI SASTRY

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      Interaction between lithium and carbonaceous materials has gained a lot of importance in lithium battery industry as an important source of energy and storage. The size, dimension, curvature and chirality of the carbonaceous materials are found to be very important factors in controlling the sequential binding oflithium. The propensity of lithium binding to the monolayer carbonaceous materials has been studied using Density functional theory (DFT). Structural and energetical parameters of the complexes have been analyzed through interaction energy, sequential energy, Mulliken population analysis and spin density distribution. Spindensity of odd Li doped systems reveals the preferences for addition of further lithium atoms on the surface. Upon analyzing the interaction energy in armchair carbon nanotubes (A-CNTs) and zigzag carbon nanotubes (Z-CNTs), it has been observed that external and internal surfaces of CNTs have contrasting binding preferences for sequential addition of Li atoms. Internal surface is found to be more feasible site for lithium adsorption than the external surface. This current study provides fundamental understanding of the mechanism of lithium adsorption in lithium battery.

    • Role of Ti doping and Al and B vacancies in the dehydrogenation of Al(BH₄)₃

      INDRANI CHOUDHURI ARUP MAHATA KUBER SINGH RAWAT BISWARUP PATHAK

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      Metal borohydrides such as Al(BH₄)₃ is thermodynamically very stable but has weak dehydrogenation property. In contrast, Ti(BH₄)₃ has less stability (25◦C) but excellent dehydrogenation property. Hence, we have studied Ti-doped aluminium borohydride systems in order to improve the dehydrogenation property. Our density functional studies (DOS and pDOS) show that Ti interacts more strongly with the BH₄ unit and such strong interaction weakens the B-H bond and improves the dehydrogenation property. Ti-doped Al(BH₄)₃ system improves the overall stability due to the formation of a stronger Ti-B bond. Our study on defects in Al(BH₄)₃ suggests that B-defect system has the best dehydrogenation property compared to the pure and Ti-doped Al(BH₄)₃ systems.

    • Computational design of Oligo-sulfuranes

      CHAKKINGAL P PRIYAKUMARI ELUVATHINGAL D JEMMIS

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      We studied the effect of electronegativity perturbation on the isolobal behavior of tetra-coordinate hypervalent compounds of S (sulfuranes, SL₄, L is any atom or group which can provide one electron for S-L bonding). Though formally the fragment SL₄ obtained from SL6 is an isolobal equivalent of CH₂, a qualitative molecular orbital study shows that only SF₂H₂ with equatorial F atoms is a practical isolobal substitute for CH₂ and can form oligomers, (SF₂H₂)₂, (14), (SF₂H₂)₃, (15) and (SF₂H₂)₄, (16) analogous to ethylene, cyclopropane and cyclobutane, respectively. DFT computations at the B2PLYP/6-311++g(d,p), MP2/ aug-ccpVTZ and B3LYP/6-311++g(d,p) levels confirm these structures to be minima on the PES. The skeletal S-S bonds in these structures are formed solely by the bonding combination of anti-bonding fragment orbitals of SF₂H₂. In contrast, per-fluorination, the usual way to stabilize hypervalent structures, is found to have an opposite effect here. Calculations at the same levels show (SF₄)₂, (SF₄)₃, and (SF₄)₄ not to be minima. The highly stable HOMO of SF₄ fragment and large HOMO-LUMO gap makes SF₄ a stable entity, preventing it from oligomerization. Out of the various isomers of SFnH₄−n, n = 0-4, only SF₂H₂ with equatorial F atoms can form oligomeric sulfuranes. Substitution of F by heavier analogs of the group did not lead to any stable oligomers.

    • Calculation of hyperfine structure constants of small molecules using Z-vector method in the relativistic coupled-cluster framework

      SUDIP SASMAL KAUSHIK TALUKDAR MALAYA K NAYAK NAYANA VAVAL SOURAV PAL

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      The Z-vector method in the relativistic coupled-cluster framework is employed to calculate the parallel and perpendicular components of the magnetic hyperfine structure constant of a few small alkaline earth hydrides (BeH, MgH, and CaH) and fluorides (MgF and CaF). We have compared our Z-vector results with the values calculated by the extended coupled-cluster (ECC) method reported in Phys. Rev. A 91 022512 (2015). All these results are compared with the available experimental values. The Z-vector results are found to be in better agreement with the experimental values than those of the ECC values.

    • Molecular electrostatic potential analysis of non-covalent complexes

      PADINJARE VEETIL BIJINA CHERUMUTTATHU H SURESH

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      Ab initio MP4/Aug-cc-pvDZ//MP2/6-311++g(d,p) level interaction energy (Eint) and molecular electrostatic potential analysis (MESP) of a large variety of non-covalent intermolecular complexes, viz. tetrel, chalcogen, pnicogen, halogen, hydrogen, dihydrogen and lithium bonded complexes have been reported. The electronic changes associated with the non-covalent complex formation is monitored in terms of MESP minimum (Vmin) in the free and complexed states of the donor and acceptor molecules as well as in terms ofMESP at the donor and acceptor atoms (Vn) of the free monomers and complexes. The change in Vmin or Vn on the donor molecule (ΔVmin(D) or ΔVn(D)) during complex formation is proportional to its electron donating ability while such a change on the acceptor molecule (ΔVmin(A) or ΔVn(A)) is proportional to its electron accepting ability. Further, the quantities ΔΔVmin = ΔVmin(D) −ΔVmin(A) and ΔΔVn = ΔVn(D) −ΔVn(A) have shown strong linear correlations with Eint of the complex (Eint values fall in the range 0.7 to 46.2 kcal/mol for 54 complexes) and suggest that the intermolecular non-covalent interactions in a wide variety of systems can be monitored and assessed in terms of change in MESP due to complex formation in the gas phase. With the incorporation of solvent effect in the calculation, charged systems showed significant deviations from the linear correlation. The MESP based analysis proposes that the large variety of intermolecular non-covalent complexes considered in this study can be grouped under the general category of electron donor-acceptor (eDA) complexes

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