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      Volume 128, Issue 7

      July 2016,   pages  1018a-1173

    • Table of Contents

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    • A simple approach to the construction of the core structure present in bielschowskysin and hippolachnin A

      RITABRATA DATTA MALASALA SUMALATHA SUBRATA GHOSH

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      A convenient route for the synthesis of oxacyclobutapentalene, the tricyclic bridged core structure present in bioactive marine diterpene bielschowskysin and the polyketide hippolachnin A, is reported. The key steps involve ring closing metathesis of a triene derived from D-mannitol to produce selectively the dihydrofuran derivative instead of the cyclopentene derivative and a Cu(I)-catalyzed intramolecular [2+2]photocycloaddition of the dihydrofuran derivative.

    • Reactivity of [Cp*Mo(CO)₃Me] with chalcogenated borohydrides Li[BH₂E₃] and Li[BH₃EFc] (Cp* = (ŋ⁵-C₅Me₅); E = S, Se or Te; Fc = (C₅H₅-Fe-C₅H₄))

      RONGALA RAMALAKSHMI KOUSHIK SAHA ANAMIKA PAUL SUNDARGOPAL GHOSH

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      Reactivity of [Cp*Mo(CO)₃Me], 1 with various chalcogenide ligands such as Li[BH₂E₃] andLi[BH₃EFc]] (E = S, Se or Te; Fc = (C₅H₅-Fe-C₅H&#8324)) has been described. Room temperature reaction of 1 with Li[BH₂E₃] (E = S and Se) yielded metal chalcogenide complexes [Cp*Mo(CO)₂(ŋ2-S₂CCH3)], 2 and [Cp*Mo(CO)₂(ŋ1-SeC₂H₅)], 3. In compound 2, {Cp*Mo(CO)2} fragment adopts a four-legged piano-stool geometry with a η2-dithioacetate moiety. In contrast, treatment of 1 with Li[BH3(EFc)] (E = S, Se or Te; Fc = C₅H₅-Fe-C₅H₄) yielded borate complexes [Cp*Mo(CO)₂(μ-H)(μ-EFc)BH₂], 4-6 in moderate yields. Compounds 4-6 are too unstable and gradual conversion to [{Cp*Mo(CO)₂}₂(μ-H)(μ-EFc] (7: E = S; 8: Se) and [{Cp*Mo(CO)₂}₂(μ-TeFc)₂], 9 happened by subsequent release of BH₃. All the compounds have been characterized by mass spectrometry, IR, multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and structures were unequivocally established by crystallographic analysis for compounds 2, 3 and 7.

    • Synthesis of new series of 4, 5-dihydroisoxazole-5-carboxylate derivatives for the study of their liquid crystalline properties

      SUMANA Y KOTIAN NARAYANA U KUDVA N K M LOKANATHA RAI K BYRAPPA

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      A new series of 4,5-dihydroisoxazole-5-carboxylate derivatives were synthesized via [3+2] cycloaddition reaction between ethyl acrylate and nitrile oxide generated in situ in presence of Chloramine-T. The synthesized derivatives were characterized by Mass, IR and NMR Spectroscopy and their mesomorphic behavior were studied using DSC and Polarising Optical Microscopy.

    • Synthesis and Characterization of a new Cyclohexaphosphate, (C₉H₁₄N)₄(H₃O)₂(P₆O₁₈)

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      The physicochemical properties of a new cyclohexaphosphate, (C₉H₁₄N)₄(H₃O)₂(P₆O₁₈), preparedm by an acid-base reaction between cyclohexaphosphoric acid H₆P₆O₁₈ and 2,4,6-trimethylaniline, are discussed on the basis of X-ray crystal structure investigation. The crystal structure determination reveals that the complete cyclohexaphosphate anion, with chair conformation, is generated by crystallographic inversion symmetry. The asymmetric unit consists of two organic cations, one half-anion and one hydronium cation. The atomic arrangement can be described by thick layers built by P₆O₁₈ anions and H₃O⁺ cations parallel to the (a, b) plane. Each cyclohexaphosphate group is connected to its adjacent neighbors by six hydronium ions through strong O-H...O hydrogen bonds. The protonated amines are located between these successive inorganic layers, in order to balance the negative charge of the inorganic framework by establishing N–H...O hydrogen bonds with the O atoms of the P₆O₁₈ anions. The three-dimensional cohesion is assured by different interactions (electrostatic, H-bonds, van der Waals) established between the various molecular components. This compound is also characterized by infrared spectroscopy and solid state MAS-NMR.

    • Crystal structures of unsymmetrically mixed β-pyrrole substituted nickel(II)-meso-tetraphenylporphyrins

      BHYRAPPA PUTTAIAH VELKANNAN VEERAPANDIAN SARANGI UJWAL KUMAR

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      Crystal structures of solvated unsymmetrically substituted meso-tetraphenylporphyrins, 2,3,12,13, 17-pentachloro-5,7,8,10,15,18,20-hepta-phenylporphyrin, H₂TPP(Ph)₃(Cl)₅, 1 and its nickel(II), NiTPP(Ph)₃(Cl)₅, 2 were determined by single crystal XRD analysis. In addition, a new unsymmetricallysubstituted porphyrin, 2,3,12,13,17-pentacyano-5,7,8,10,15,18,20-heptaphenyl-porphinato nickel(II) complex, NiTPP(Ph)₃(CN)₅, 3 complex was synthesized and its solvated structure was examined by crystallography. These porphyrins exhibited dramatic nonplanar conformation of the macrocycle as evidenced from the averagedisplacement of the β-pyrrole carbon (±ΔCβ ) from the mean plane of the porphyrin ring and the trend in nonplanarity varies in the order: 2 (1.189(5) Å) > 1 (1.036(6) Å) > 3 (0.895(6) Å). The normal-coordinate structural decomposition analysis of these structures revealed mainly saddle distortion of the macrocycle combined with small degree of ruffled or domed distortions. The Hirshfeld surface analysis of structures 1-3 revealed solvate dependent intermolecular contacts with varying degree of H. . .H (43–49%), C. . .H (17–19%), H. . .Cl (25–30%) and N. . .H (~19%) contact contributions.

    • Copper(II) Schiff base complexes and their mixed thin layers with ZnO nanoparticles

      MAGDALENA BARWIOLEK ROBERT SZCZĘSNY EDWARD SZŁYK

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      Cu(II) complexes with Schiff bases derived from ethylenediamine (en) and 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde (pyca), 2,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde (dmbaH) or 4-imidazolecarboxaldehyde (4Him) were obtained and studied by elemental analysis, UV-VIS and IR spectra. Zinc oxide was synthesized using a simple homogeneous precipitation method with zinc acetate as a starting material. Thin layers of the studied Cu(II) complexes were deposited on Si(111) or ZnO/Si(111) substrates by a spin coating method and characterized with a scanningelectron microscopy (SEM/EDS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and fluorescence spectroscopy. For Cu(II) layers the most intensive fluorescence bands due to intra-ligand transitions were observed between 462 and 503 nm. The fluorescence intensity of thin layers was corelated to the rotation speed. In the case of the

      [Cu(II)(en(4Him)₂)Cl₂](2a)/ZnO/Si and [Cu(en(dmbaH)₂)Cl₂](3a)/ZnO/Si layers the quenching of the emission band from ZnO at 440 nm (λex = 330 nm) associated with various intrinsic or extrinsic lattice defects was noted.

    • Titanocene(III) chloride mediated radical induced addition-elimination route to the synthesis of racemic and optically active trisubstituted tetrahydrofurans: Formal synthesis of magnofargesin and 7'-epimagnofargesin

      P CHAKRABORTY S K MANDAL S C ROY

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      Titanocene(III) Chloride mediated radical induced synthesis of 4-benzylidene substituted tetrahydrofuran, a typical lignan skeleton, has been accomplished in good yield through addition-elimination route in racemic as well as in optically active forms. The method has been applied to the synthesis of furano lignans, magnofargesin (1) and 7'-epimagnofargesin (2) in optically active forms.

    • Synthesis, crystal structure, thermal and theoretical studies of bis(N-ethyl-N-phenyldithiocarbamato) Ni(II) and (N-ethyl-N-phenyldithiocarbamato) (isothiocyanato) (triphenylphosphine) Ni(II)

      DAMIAN C ONWUDIWE MWADHAM M KABANDA ENO E EBENSO ERIC HOSTEN

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      Homoleptic and heteroleptic Ni(II) complexes represented as NiL¹₂ and NiL¹L²L³ (where, L¹ = N-ethyl-N-phenyldithiocarbamato anion, L² = isothiocyanato anion, and L³ = triphenylphosphine) were synthesized. The complexes have been characterized by elemental, IR, NMR, and single-crystal X-ray analysis. The thermal decomposition behaviour of the complexes were studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The optimized geometry and the electronic analysis of the type of bonding within the complex structures were performed using methods based on the density functional theory and atom in molecule (AIM) analysis method. X-ray structural analysis of both complexes confirms distorted square planar geometry about the Ni atom. The TGA indicates that the complexes belong to the class of volatile dithiocarbamates which yield the corresponding metal sulphide without any intermediate products. Structural parameters from crystallographic and DFT studies have been compared and found to correlate with each other. The small discrepancies in geometric parameters are attributable to H-bonding and packing interactions within the lattice which are not modelled during computational study. AIM analysis suggests that in NiL¹L²L³ , the Ni· · · L interactions are more covalent in nature whereas in NiL¹₂ complex, they are more ionic in character.

    • Synthesis, crystal structures, spectroscopic characterization and in vitro antidiabetic studies of new Schiff base Copper(II) complexes

      SUNDARAMURTHY SANTHA LAKSHMI KANNAPPAN GEETHA M GAYATHRI GANESH SHANMUGAM

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      Two new Schiff base copper(II) complexes, [CuL¹(tmen)] (1) and [Cu₂L₂² (tmen)] (2) {where, H₂L¹ = N-(salicylidene)-L-valine, H₂L² = N-(3,5-dichlorosalicylidene)-L-valine and tmen = N,N,N',N'- tetramethylethylene-1,2-diamine} have been synthesized and characterized by molar conductance, elemental analyses, VSM-RT, UV-Vis, FTIR, EPR, and CD spectra. Both the complexes were structurally characterized by single crystal XRD. The crystal structure of complex 1 displays a distorted square pyramidal geometry in which Schiff base is coordinated to the Cu(II) ion via ONO-donor in the axial mode, whereas, the chelating diamine displays axial and equatorial mode of binding via NN-donor atoms. The crystal structure of the complex 2 reveals a syn-anti mode of carboxylate bridged dinuclear complex, in which, the coordination geometry around Cu(1) is square pyramid and distorted square planar around Cu(2). The target complexes were screened for in vitro antidiabetic activity. Both the complexes showed good inhibitory activity for α-amylase and α-glucosidase.

    • Variable coordinating activity of sulfur in silver(I) complexes with thiophene based N¹ -substituted thiosemicarbazones: First case of thiopheneyl-thione sulfur bridging in a dinuclear complex

      REKHA SHARMA TARLOK S LOBANA MANVIR KAUR NEERAJ THATHAI GEETA HUNDAL JERRY P JASINSKI RAY J BUTCHER

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      Thiophene-2-carbaldehyde / acetaldehyde-N¹-substituted thiosemicarbazones {R¹R²C² = N³ - N(H)- C¹(=S)N¹HR; R¹, R², R : C₄H₃S, H, Me, Httsc- NMe; C₄H₃S, H, Et, Httsc-NEt; C₄H₃S, H, Ph, Httsc-NPh; C₄H₃S, Me, Et, Hattsc-NEt} and furan-2-carbaldehyde-N-ethyl thiosemicarbazone (C₄H₃O, H, Et, Hftsc-NEt) were reacted with silver(I) halides/silver(I) acetate in presence of triphenylphosphine in organic solvents. These reactions yielded a series of dinuclear [Ag₂(μ-Br)₂ (κ-S-Httsc-NEt)2(PPh3)2]·2MeOH 1, [Ag2Cl2(κ1-SHttsc-NPh)2(μ-S,S-Httsc-NPh)2] 2, [Ag2Cl2(μ-S-Hftsc-NEt)2(κ1-S-Hftsc-NEt)2] 4, [Ag2(μ3-N3,S-ttsc-NMe)2 (Ph3P)2]·2(CH3)2CO 5, [Ag2 (μ3-N3,S-attsc-NEt)2(Ph3P)2]·0.5(CH3)2CO 6 and mononuclear [AgBr(κ1-SHttsc-NPh)(PPh3)2]· MeCN 3 complexes, all of which have been characterized using analytical techniques, IRand NMR spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography. Thio-ligands bind in neutral form in complexes 1-4 and in anionic form in complexes 5-6. Further, the sulfur donor atoms have shown variable coordination modes incomplexes, namely, κ1-S in 1 and 3; κ1-S, μ-S in 4; κ1-S, μ-S,S (thiopheneyl-thione) in 2 and μ3- N3, S in 5 and 6. Tertiary-phosphine (PPh3) showed dual function of ligation/de-ligation towards silver(I) chloride during the synthesis of complexes 2 and 4. The bridge bonding of Httsc-NPh in 2 through thiopheneyl ring sulfur andthione sulfur is unprecedented in metal-thiosemicarbazone chemistry.

    • Tridentate Schiff base (ONO) transition metal complexes: Synthesis, crystal structure, spectroscopic and larvicidal studies

      SUNDARAMURTHY SANTHA LAKSHMI KANNAPPAN GEETHA P MAHADEVI

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      A series of four new Schiff base transition metal complexes [Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II)] derived from N-(salicylidene)-L-alanine and N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylene-1,2-diamine (tmen) were designed, synthesized and tested for larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus, the southern house mosquito, which is the primary vector of St. Louis encephalitis virus and West Nile virus. All the complexes were characterized by physicochemical and spectral studies such as UV-Visible, FTIR, and EPR. The X-ray crystallographic analysis of Ni(II) complex revealed that, Ni(II) cation is surrounded by nitrogen and oxygen atoms from the Schiff base ligand, the oxygen atom of a water molecule, and two nitrogen atoms from tmen. Intermolecularhydrogen bonding stabilizes the Ni(II) complex. Results indicated that all the complexes exhibited higher mosquito larvicidal activity against C. quinquefasciatus.

    • Ba/ZrO₂ nanoparticles as efficient heterogeneous base catalyst for the synthesis of β-nitro alcohols and 2-amino 2-chromenes

      SAGNIKA PRADHAN KUMARI SWARNIMA B G MISHRA

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      Zirconia nanoparticles were synthesized by precipitation, urea hydrolysis, amorphous citrate and combustion synthesis methods. The zirconia surface was subsequently modified by grafting Ba²⁺ species. The Ba²⁺ modified zirconia (Ba/ZrO₂) materials were characterized using XRD, Fourier analysis, UV-vis-DRS, FESEM and HRTEM techniques. XRD study indicated selective stabilization of the tetragonal phase of zirconia in the presence of Ba²⁺ species. Fourier line profile analysis of the XRD peaks revealed that the average crystallite size of the zirconia nanoparticles is in the range of 5-15 nm. The surface area, basicity and barium content of the material depend strongly on the method of synthesis. The Ba/ZrO₂ catalyst prepared by urea hydrolysis method exhibited higher surface area and barium content compared to other samples. The catalytic activity of the Ba/ZrO₂ catalyst was evaluated for synthesis of β-nitro alcohols and 2-amino 2-chromenes. The β-nitro alcohols were synthesized by condensation of aryl aldehydes and nitromethane. Similarly, the 2-amino 2-chromenes were synthesized by condensation of arylaldehydes, α-naphthol and malononitrile. The Ba/ZrO₂ catalyst was found to be highly efficient for synthesis of both classes of compounds providing excellent yield and purity of the products.

    • Amine-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles as robust support for immobilization of Lipase

      BANALATA SAHOO SUJAN DUTTA DIBAKAR DHARA

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      Preparation of magnetic nanoparticles with controlled size and shape along with modulation of their surface properties via introduction of functional groups holds great prospect in the field of nanotechnology. Superparamagnetic, aqueous dispersible iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe₃O₃) with amine-functionalized surface were prepared through solvothermal method, using poly(ethylene imine) (PEI), ethanolamine (EA), and 2,2' -(ethylenedioxy) bis (ethylamine) (EDBE) as amine precursors. These aminated nanoparticles were used as support for the immobilization of lipase, an important industrial enzyme. Lipase was immobilized via glutaraldehyde coupling agent. These functionalized nanoparticles were characterized by XRD, FTIR, TEM, FESEM and VSM analysis. The maximum activity was obtained for the lipase immobilized on EDBE modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The lipase immobilized on EDBE-Fe₃O₃ depicted 83.9% relative activity with respect to the same amount of free lipase. Moreover, lipase immobilized on EDBE-Fe₃O₃ nanoparticles demonstrated good thermal and storage stability, and easy reusability. The kinetic parameters of lipase immobilized on EDBE-Fe₃O₃ were compared with those of free lipase and the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant ofimmobilized lipase was found to be nearly same as that of free lipase.

    • Assembly of organic moiety with metal-oxide cluster to generate a new three dimensional supramolecular/hydrogen bonded network based on isopolymolybdate

      DONIA ZAMMEL ICHRAF NAGAZI AMOR HADDAD

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      A new octa-molybdate formulated as (C₂H₆N₄)₂ [β-Mo₈O₂₆].4H₂O (1) has been isolated by conventional solution method and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction method, IR spectroscopy, UV-Vis absorption, thermogravimetric analysis and cyclic voltammetry. Compound 1 crystallizes in the Triclinic system, space group P-1 with unit cell dimensions, a = 8.348 (2)Å, b = 10.154 (2)Å, c = 10.823 (3)Å, α = 68.35◦ (2), β = 71.59◦ (2), γ= 78.55◦ (2), V = 805.5 (3)ų, and Z = 2. The crystal structure of 1 is built up from octa-molybdate [β-Mo₈O₂₆]⁴⁻ clusters connected through hydrogen-bonding interactions into a three-dimensional supramolecular network.

    • Synthesis and characterization of bi-functional magneto-luminescent Fe₃O₄ @ SiO₂ @ NaLuF₄ :Eu³⁺ hybrid core / shell nanospheres

      JIGMET LADOL HEENA KHAJURIA HAQ NAWAZ SHEIKH YUGAL KHAJURIA

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      A step-wise synthetic method has been developed for the synthesis of multifunctional, magnetic luminescent nanocomposites with Fe₃O₄ nanospheres as the core encapsulated in silica and europium-doped sodium lutetium fluoride (NaLuF₄ :Eu³⁺) as the shell. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), photoluminescence (PL), kinetics of luminescence decay and magnetic studies were used to characterize the structural, optical and magnetic properties of these nanospheres. SEM and TEM images define their spherical morphology with average crystallite size in the range of 90–180 nm. Ultraviolet excited photoluminescent properties of Eu³⁺ doped Fe₃O₄ @ SiO₂ @ NaLuF₄ nanospheres were investigated and impact of doping has been explored. Eu³⁺ as dopant ion induces highly efficient luminescence with average lifetime value of 6.235 ns. Fe₃O₄ magnetic core exhibits super- paramagnetic behavior at room temperature.

    • Pd immobilized on modified magnetic Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles: Magnetically recoverable and reusable Pd nanocatalyst for Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reactions and Ullmann-type N-arylation of indoles

      RAMIN GHORBANI-VAGHEI SABA HEMMATI MALAK HEKMATI

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      The Pd supported on amidoxime (AO)-functionalized Fe₃O₄ ( Fe₃O₄ /AO/Pd) hybrid material was used as an effective and recyclable nanocatalyst in Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reactions. The catalyst was very effective for the Suzuki-Miyaura reaction of aryl halides (Ar–I, Ar–Br, Ar–Cl) with phenylboronic acid and conversion was excellent in most cases. The yields of the products were in the range from 7–98%. The catalyst showed good stability and could be recovered and reused for six reaction cycles without a significant loss in its catalytic activity. Also, a wide range of N-arylated indoles are selectively synthesized through inter molecular C(aryl)–N bond formation from the corresponding aryl iodides and indoles through Ullmann-type coupling reactions in the presence of the prepared catalyst.

    • Molecular docking, MM/GBSA and 3D-QSAR studies on EGFR inhibitors

      RAJU BATHINI SREE KANTH SIVAN SABIHA FATIMA VIJJULATHA MANGA

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      Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is the first growth factor receptor proposed as a target for cancer therapy. Molecular modeling protocols like molecular docking, molecular mechanics/generalized born surface area (MM/GBSA) calculations and three dimensional-quantitative structure activity relationship(3D-QSAR) studies were performed on 45 molecules to understand the structural requirements for EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Conformation for all the molecules obtained from molecular docking were used as is for 3D-QSAR analysis. Comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarityindices analysis (CoMSIA) models were obtained by performing partial least square analysis on 35 training molecules and these models were validated using 10 test moleucles. The models showed good statistical results in terms of r², q²

      loo and r² pred values. Information rendered from 3D-QSAR model and sitemap analysis was used to optimize lead molecule to design prospective inhibitors. Improvement in EGFR binding affinity can be achieved by substitutional modification on phenyl ring attached to alkynyl group with bulkier hydrogen bond donor and acceptor substituents that can increase favourable interaction with the receptor.

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