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      Volume 120, Issue 1

      January 2008,   pages  7-222

    • Foreword

      S Chandrasekaran V Krishnan

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    • Graphene-based electrochemical supercapacitors

      S R C Vivekchand Chandra Sekhar Rout K S Subrahmanyam A Govindaraj C N R Rao

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      Graphenes prepared by three different methods have been investigated as electrode materials in electrochemical supercapacitors. The samples prepared by exfoliation of graphitic oxide and by the transformation of nanodiamond exhibit high specific capacitance in aq. H2SO4, the value reaching up to 117 F/g. By using an ionic liquid, the operating voltage has been extended to 3.5 V (instead of 1 V in the case of aq. H2SO4), the specific capacitance and energy density being 75 F/g and 31.9 Wh kg-1 respectively. This value of the energy density is one of the highest values reported to date. The performance characteristics of the graphenes which are directly related to the quality, in terms of the number of layers and the surface area, are superior to that of single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    • Ultrafast fluorescence resonance energy transfer in a bile salt aggregate: Excitation wavelength dependence

      Ujjwal Mandal Subhadip Ghosh Dibyendu Kumar Das Aniruddha Adhikari Shantanu Dey Kankan Bhattacharyya

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      Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from Coumarin 153 (C153) to Rhodamine 6G (R6G) in a secondary aggregate of a bile salt (sodium deoxycholate, NaDC) is studied by femtosecond up-conversion. The emission spectrum of C153 in NaDC is analysed in terms of two spectra-one with emission maximum at 480 nm which corresponds to a non-polar and hydrophobic site and another with maximum at ∼ 530 nm which arises from a polar hydrophilic site. The time constants of FRET were obtained from the rise time of the emission of the acceptor (R6G). In the NaDC aggregate, FRET occurs in multiple time scales -4 ps and 3700 ps. The 4 ps component is assigned to FRET from a donor (D) to an acceptor (A) held at a close distance ($R_{\text{DA}} \sim 17$ Å) inside the bile salt aggregate. The 3700 ps component corresponds to a donor-acceptor distance ∼ 48 Å. The long (3700 ps) component may involve diffusion of the donor. With increase in the excitation wavelength ($\lambda_{\text{ex}}$) from 375 to 435 nm, the relative contribution of the ultrafast component of FRET (∼ 4 ps) increases from 3 to 40% with a concomitant decrease in the contribution of the ultraslow component (∼3700 ps) from 97 to 60%. The $\lambda_{ex}$ dependence is attributed to the presence of donors at different locations. At a long $\lambda_{\text{ex}}$ (435 nm) donors in the highly polar peripheral region are excited. A short $\lambda_{\text{ex}}$ (375 nm) `selects’ donor at a hydrophobic location.

    • Analysis of polypyrrole-coated stainless steel electrodes - Estimation of specific capacitances and construction of equivalent circuits

      R Ramya M V Sangaranarayanan

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      The galvanostatic polymerization of pyrrole is carried out on stainless steel electrodes using 𝑝-toluene sulphonic acid. The morphology of the film is studied from Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) measurements while the nature of the substrate is analysed using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDAX) technique. The electrochemical behaviour is studied using cyclic voltammetry, charge-discharge analysis and impedance spectroscopy. The feasibility of the electrode for supercapacitor applications is investigated. The specific capacitance is estimated as ∼ 102 Farads per gram with 103 charge-discharge cycles. A plausible equivalent circuit for the system is proposed and the circuit parameters are obtained by non-linear regression analysis.

    • Quantum-classical correspondence of a field induced KAM-type transition: A QTM approach

      P K Chattaraj S Sengupta S Giri

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      A transition from regular to chaotic behaviour in the dynamics of a classical Henon-Heiles oscillator in the presence of an external field is shown to have a similar quantum signature when studied using the pertaining phase portraits and the associated Kolmogorov-Sinai-Lyapunov entropies obtained through the corresponding Bohmian trajectories.

    • Self assembly of C-methyl resorcin[4]arene with coumarin and thiocoumarin: A nanotubular array with a near perfect lock and key fit

      Lepakshaiah Mahalakshmi Partha P Das Tayur N Guru Row

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      The host-guest complex of 𝐶-methyl resorcin[4]arene with coumarin and thiocoumarin has been characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. Structural analysis shows that the host forms an infinitie nanotubular array in which the guest coumarin shows a `head to tail’ arrangement of dimers held together by $\pi\ldots \pi$ interaction in the host framework. Similar structural motif is observed when thiocoumarin used as a guest.

    • Relaxation dynamics in the excited states of a ketocyanine dye probed by femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy

      Jahur A Mondal Sandeep Verma Hirendra N Ghosh Dipak K Palit

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      Relaxation dynamics of the excited singlet states of 2,5-bis-(N-methyl-N-1,3-propdienylaniline)-cyclopentanone (MPAC), a ketocyanine dye, have been investigated using steady-state absorption and emission as well as femtosecond time-resolved absorption spectroscopic techniques. Following photoexcitation using 400 nm light, the molecule is excited to the S2 state, which is fluorescent in rigid matrices at 77 K. S2 state is nearly non-fluorescent in solution and has a very short lifetime ($0.5 \pm 0.2$ ps). In polar aprotic solvents, the S1 state follows a complex multi-exponential relaxation dynamics consisting of torsional motion of the donor groups, solvent re-organization as well as photoisomerization processes. However, in alcoholic solvents, solvent re-organization via intermolecular hydrogen-bonding interaction is the only relaxation process observed in the S1 state. In trifluoroethanol, a strong hydrogen bonding solvent, conversion of the non-hydrogen-bonded form, which is formed following photoexcitation, to the hydrogen-bonded complex has been clearly evident in the relaxation process of the S1 state.

    • General approaches in ensemble quantum computing

      V Vimalan N Chandrakumar

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      We have developed methodology for NMR quantum computing focusing on enhancing the efficiency of initialization, of logic gate implementation and of readout. Our general strategy involves the application of rotating frame pulse sequences to prepare pseudopure states and to perform logic operations. We demonstrate experimentally our methodology for both homonuclear and heteronuclear spin ensembles. On model two-spin systems, the initialization time of one of our sequences is three-fourths (in the heteronuclear case) or one-fourth (in the homonuclear case), of the typical pulsed free precession sequences, attaining the same initialization efficiency. We have implemented the logical SWAP operation in homonuclear AMX spin systems using selective isotropic mixing, reducing the duration taken to a third compared to the standard re-focused INEPT-type sequence. We introduce the 1D version for readout of the rotating frame SWAP operation, in an attempt to reduce readout time. We further demonstrate the Hadamard mode of 1D SWAP, which offers 2N-fold reduction in experiment time for a system with 𝑁-working bits, attaining the same sensitivity as the standard 1D version.

    • Effects of ion concentration on the hydrogen bonded structure of water in the vicinity of ions in aqueous NaCl solutions

      A Nag D Chakraborty A Chandra

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      Molecular dynamics simulations of dilute and concentrated aqueous NaCl solutions are carried out to investigate the changes of the hydrogen bonded structures in the vicinity of ions for different ion concentrations. An analysis of the hydrogen bond population in the first and second solvation shells of the ions and in the bulk water is done. Although essentially no effect of ions on the hydrogen bonding is observed beyond the first solvation shell of the ions for the dilute solutions, for the concentrated solutions a noticeable change in the average number of water-water hydrogen bonds is observed in the second solvation shells of the ions and even beyond. However, the changes in the average number of hydrogen bonds are found to be relatively less when both water-water and ion-water hydrogen bonds are counted. Thus, the changes in the total number of hydrogen bonds per water are not very dramatic beyond the first solvation shell even for concentrated solutions.

    • Growth of anisotropic gold nanostructures on conducting glass surfaces

      P R Sajanlal T Pradeep

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      In this paper, we describe a method for the growth of gold nanowires and nanoplates starting from a bilayer array of gold seeds, anchored on electrically conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates. This is based on a seed-mediated growth approach, where the nanoparticles attached on the substrate through molecular linkages are converted to nanowires and nanoplates at certain cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) concentration. Our modified approach can be used to make nanowires of several tens of micrometers length at a lower CTAB concentration of 0.1 M. The length of the nanowires can be varied by adjusting the time of the reaction. As the concentration of CTAB was increased to 0.25 M, the nanoparticles got converted to nanoplates. These Au nanoplates are (111) oriented and are aligned parallel to the substrate.

    • Oximato bridged Rh$^{\text{III}}_2$MII and RhIIIMI species (MII = Mn, Co, Ni; MI = Cu, Ag)

      Indranil Bhattacharyya Sanjib Ganguly Bikash Kumar Panda Animesh Chakravorty

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      The reaction of [RhCl2(HPhL)(PhL)] with MII(ClO4)2.6H2O in presence of alkali has furnished trinuclear [RhCl2(PhL)2]2M(H2O)$_2.$H2O (HPhL is phenylazobenzaldoxime; M = Mn, Co, Ni). A similar reaction with MI(PPh3)2NO3 yielded binuclear [RhCl2(PhL)2]M(PPh3)2 (M = Cu, Ag). In these molecules the oximato group acts as a bridge between RhIII (bonded at N) and MII or MI (bonded at O). In structurally characterized [RhIIICl2(PhL)2]2Mn(H2O)2.H2O the centrosymmetric distorted octahedral MnO6 coordination sphere is spanned by four oximato oxygen atoms and two water molecules lying in trans position. In the lattice the neighbouring molecules are held together by H2O$\cdots$H2O$\cdots$H2O hydrogen bonds generating infinite zigzag chains. The manganese atoms lie parallel to the C-axis, the shortest Mn…Mn distance being 7.992 Å. Magnetic exchange interactions if any are small as seen in room temperature magnetic moments. The manganese system displays a strong EPR signal near 𝑔 = 2.00. In the complex [RhCl2(PhL)2]Cu(PPh3)2 the copper atom is coordinated to two oximato oxygen atoms and the two phosphorus atoms in a distorted tetrahedral geometry. The softness of the phosphine ligand is believed to sustain the stable coordination of hard oximato oxygen to soft CuI. The coordination sphere of the RhIII atom in both the complexes is uniformly trans-RhN4Cl2.

    • Two different zinc(II)-aqua complexes held up by a metal-oxide based support: Synthesis, crystal structure and catalytic activity of [HMTAH]2[{Zn(H2O)5}{Zn(H2O)4}{Mo7O24}].2H2O (HMTAH = protonated hexamethylenetetramine)

      T Arumuganathan A Srinivasarao T Vijay Kumar Samar K Das

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      An inorganic−organic hybrid material, [HMTAH]2[{Zn(H2O)5}{Zn(H2O)4}{Mo7O24}].2H2O (1) (where HMTAH = protonated hxamethylenetetramine) has been synthesized and structurally characterized. The compound 1 crystallizes in a monoclinic space group $C2/c$. The crystal data of 1: 𝑎 = 43.12(3), 𝑏 = 12.399(10), 𝑐 = 16.285(13), 𝛽 = 111.131(11), 𝑍 = 8. Its crystal structure shows that two different Zn(II)-aqua complexes, [Zn(H2O)5]2+ and [Zn(H2O)4]2+ are covalently coordinated to a heptamolybdateanion [Mo7O24]6- resulting in an anionic species of polyoxometalate supported zinc-aqua complexes, [{Zn(H2O)}{Zn(H2O)4}{Mo7O24}]2-, that is stabilized with two protonated hexamethylenetetramine cations in the title compound 1. In the crystal structure, both lattice water molecules are found to interact with the heptamolybdate cluster anion and the protonated hexamethylenetetramine cation resulting in an intricate three-dimensional hydrogen bonding network. Interestingly, compound 1 exhibits catalytic activity towards oxidation of some primary alcohols.

    • Multi-functional architectures supported on organostannoxane scaffolds

      Vadapalli Chandrasekhar Palani Sasikumar Puja Singh Ramalingam Thirumoorthi Tapas Senapati

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      Organostannoxane cages and aggregates of well-defined composition and structure can be prepared by the reactions of organotin oxides or organotin oxide-hydroxides with protic acids. The utility of this strategy for the preparation of dendrimer-like molecules containing a stannoxane core and a functional periphery is described.

    • Cyclic porphyrin dimers as hosts for coordinating ligands

      G Vaijayanthimala V Krishnan S K Mandal

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      Bicovalently linked tetraphenylporphyrins bearing dioxypentane groups at the opposite (transoid, H4A) and adjacent (cisoid, H4B) aryl groups have been synthesised. Protonation of the free-base porphyrins leads to fully protonated species H8A4+/H8A4+ accompanied by expansion of cavity size of the bisporphyrins. The electrochemical redox studies of these porphyrins and their Zinc(II) derivatives revealed that the first ring oxidation proceeds through a two-electron process while the second ring oxidation occurs at two distinct one-electron steps indicating unsymmetrical charge distribution in the oxidized intermediate. The axial ligation properties of the Zinc(Il) derivatives of H4A/H4B with DABCO and PMDA investigated by spectroscopic and single crystal X-ray diffraction studies showed predominant existence of 1 : I complex. The Zn2A.DABCO complex assumes an interesting eclipsed structure wherein DABCO is located inside the cavity between the two porphyrin planes with Zn-N distances at 2.08 and 2.22 Å. The Zn atoms are pulled into the cavity due to coordination towards nitrogen atoms of DABCO and deviate from the mean porphyrin plane by 0.35 Å. The electrochemical redox potentials of the axially ligated metal derivatives are found to be sensitive function of the relative coordinating ability of the ligands and the conformation of the hosts.

    • Facile one-pot synthesis of functionalized organophosphonate esters via ketone insertion into bulky arylphosphites

      Ramaswamy Murugavel Subramaniam Kuppuswamy

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      The reaction of phosphorus trichloride with 2,6-diisopropyl phenol in the presence of LiCl under reflux conditions for 24 h produces a mixture of (ArO)PCl2 and (ArO)2PCl (Ar = 2,6-𝑖Pr2C6H3). The hydrolysis of the aryloxy compounds in acetone/H2O results in the formation of two novel phosphonate ester derivatives [(ArO)P(O)(OH)(CMe2OH)] (1) and [(ArO)2P(O)(CMe2OH)] (2), respectively in a moderate yield. The title compounds have presumably formed via acetone insertion to the P-H bonds of (ArO)P(O)(H)(OH) and (ArO)2P(O)(H), respectively, in the presence of HCl produced during the hydrolysis. Compounds 1 and 2 have been characterized by elemental analysis, and ESI-mass, Infrared and NMR spectroscopic techniques. Further, solid state structures of 1 and 2 have been established by single crystals X-ray diffraction studies.

    • Expanded porphyrins as third order non-linear optical materials: Some structure-function correlations

      Sabapathi Gokulnath Tavarekere K Chandrashekar

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      In this paper, the non-linear optical properties of representative core-modified expanded porphyrins have been investigated with an emphasis on the structure-property relationship between the aromaticity and conformational behaviour. It has been shown that the measured two-photon absorption cross section ($\sigma^2$) values depend on the structure of macrocycle, its aromaticity and the number of 𝜋-electrons in conjugation.

    • Effect of thione-thiol tautomerism on the inhibition of lactoperoxidase by anti-thyroid drugs and their analogues

      P N JAyaram Gouriprasanna Roy Govindasamy Mugesh

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      The keto-enol type tautomerism in anti-thyroid drugs and their selenium analogues are described. The commonly used anti-thyroid drug methimazole exists predominantly in its thione form, whereas its selenium analogue exists in a zwitterionic form. To understand the effect of thione/thiol and selone/selenol tautomerism on the inhibition of peroxidase-catalysed reactions, we have synthesized some thiones and selones in which the formation of thiol/selenol forms are blocked by different substituents. These compounds were synthesized by a carbene route utilizing an imidazolium salt. The crystal structures of these compounds reveal that the C=Se bonds in the selones are more polarized than the C=S bonds in the corresponding thiones. The structures of selones were studied in solution by NMR spectroscopy and the 77Se NMR chemical shifts for the selones show large upfield shifts in the signals, confirming their zwitterionic structures in solution. The inhibition of lactoperoxidase by the synthetic thiones indicates that the presence of a free N-H moiety is essential for an efficient inhibition. In contrast, such moiety is not required for an inhibition by the selenium compounds.

    • Facilitation of peptide fibre formation by arginine-phosphate/carboxylate interactions

      K Krishna Prasad Sandeep Verma

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      This study describes peptide fibre formation in a hexapeptide, derived from the V3 loop of HIV-1, mediated by the interactions between arginine residues and phosphate/carboxylate anions. This charge neutralization approach was further confirmed when the deletion of arginine residue from the hexapeptide sequence resulted in fibre formation, which was studied by a combination of microscopic techniques.

    • Propargyloxycarbonyl as a protecting group for the side chains of serine, threonine and tyrosine

      Ramapanicker Ramesh Kavita De Shipra Gupta Srinivasan Chandrasekaran

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      Propargyloxycarbonyl group is used as a protecting group for the hydroxyl groups of serine, threonine and tyrosine. The propargyloxycarbonyl derivatives of these hydroxy amino acids are stable to acidic and basic reagents commonly employed in peptide synthesis. The deprotection of the 𝑂-Poc derivatives using tetrathiomolybdate does not affect commonly used protecting groups such as 𝑁-Boc, 𝑁-Cbz, 𝑁-Fmoc, methyl and benzyl esters. The di- and tripeptides synthesized using 𝑂-Poc derivatives of serine, threonine and tyrosine are stable, isolable compounds and give the hydroxy peptides in good yields when treated with tetrathiomolybdate.

    • Efficient resolution of (±)-rans-2,3-diphenylpiperazine using ($1S$)-(+)-10-camphorsulfonic acid and enrichment of enantiomeric purity of non-racemic 2,3-diphenylpiperazine using different achiral acids

      Pothiappan Vairaprakash Mariappan Periasamy

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      Enantiomerically pure (𝑅,𝑅)-(+)-2,3-diphenylpiperazine with 98% $ee$ was obtained by resolution of the corresponding racemic mixture using ($1S$)-(+)-10-camphorsulfonic acid. The partially resolved enriched sample of (𝑆,𝑆)-(-)-2,3-diphenylpiperazine with 73% ee was purified to obtain samples of 97% ee using different achiral acids via the preparation of either homochiral or heterochiral hydrogen bonded aggregates.

    • Significant improvement in the pore properties of SBA-15 brought about by carboxylic acids and hydrothermal treatment

      Milan Kanti Naskar M Eswaramoorthy

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      A comparative study of the pore properties of SBA-15 samples prepared under nonhydrothermal and hydrothermal conditions, in the absence and presence of carboxylic acids such as succinic, tartaric and citric acids has been carried out. In the absence of carboxylic acid, flake-like and spheroid particles were generally obtained irrespective of the preparative procedures. On the other hand, stirring of the pre-mix induces a rod-like morphology in presence of carboxylic acids. The samples prepared under non-hydrothermal conditions exhibit a higher degree of silicate condensation compared to those synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. SBA-15 samples prepared under hydrothermal conditions show higher values of the d (100) spacing independent of the presence of carboxylic acids. Presence of carboxylic acids as well as hydrothermal treatment improves the pore properties of SBA-15.

    • Understanding the folding process of synthetic polymers by small-molecule folding agents

      S G Ramkumar S Ramakrishnan

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      Two acceptor containing polyimides PDI and NDI carrying pyromellitic diimide units and 1,4,5,8-naphthalene tetracarboxy diimide units, respectively, along with hexa(oxyethylene) (EO6) segments as linkers, were prepared from the corresponding dianhydrides and diamines. These polyimides were made to fold by interaction with specifically designed folding agents containing a dialkoxynaphthalene (DAN) donor linked to a carboxylic acid group. The alkali-metal counter-ion of the donor carboxylic acid upon complexation with the EO6 segment brings the DAN unit in the right location to induce a charge-transfer complex formation with acceptor units in the polymer backbone. This two-point interaction between the folding agent and the polymer backbone leads to a folding of the polymer chain, which was readily monitored by NMR titrations. The effect of various parameters, such as structures of the folding agent and polymer, and the solvent composition, on the folding propensities of the polymer was studied.

    • A kinetic analysis of the tumor-associated galactopyranosyl-(1→3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-𝛼-D-galactopyranoside antigen-lectin interaction

      Bandaru Narasimha Murthy Narayanaswamy Jayaraman

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      A kinetic study of the tumor-associated galactopyranosyl-(1→3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-𝛼-Dgalactopyranoside (T-antigen) with lectin peanut agglutinin is described. The disaccharide antigen was synthesized by chemical methods and was functionalized suitably for immobilization onto a carboxymethylated sensor chip. The ligand immobilized surface was allowed interaction with the lectin peanut agglutinin, which acted as the analyte and the interaction was studied by the surface plasmon resonance method. The ligand-lectin interaction was characterized by the kinetic on-off rates and a bivalent analyte binding model was found to describe the observed kinetic constants. It was identified that the antigen-lectin interaction had a faster association rate constant ($k_{a1}$) and a slower dissociation rate constant ($k_{d1}$) in the initial binding step. The subsequent binding step showed much reduced kinetic rates. The antigen-lectin interaction was compared with the kinetic rates of the interaction of a galactopyranosyl-($1\rightarrow 4$)-𝛽-D-galactopyranoside derivative and a mannopyranoside derivative with the lectin.

    • Synthetic studies on taxanes: A domino-enyne metathesis/Diels-Alder approach to the AB-ring

      Krishna P Kaliappan Velayutham Ravikumar Sandip A Pujari

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      A domino enyne cross-metathesis/intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction has been successfully used to synthesize a bicyclo[5.3.1] undecene, corresponding to AB-ring of taxol without the gem dimethyl group.

    • Three-dimensional hybrid networks based on aspartic acid

      Anupama Ghosh R A Sanguramath

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      Three-dimensional achiral coordination polymers of the general formula M2(D, L-NHCH (COO)CH2COO)$_2.$C4H4N2 where M = Ni and Co and pyrazine acts as the linker molecule have been prepared under hydrothermal conditions starting with [M(L-NHCH(COO)CH2COO).3H2O] possessing a helical chain structure. A three-dimensional hybrid compound of the formula Pb2.5[N{CH(COO)CH2COO}22H2O] has also been prepared hydrothermally starting with aspartic acid and Pb(NO3)2. In this lead compound, where a secondary amine formed by the dimerisation of aspartic acid acts as the ligand, there is two-dimensional inorganic connectivity and one-dimensional organic connectivity.

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