Volume 118, Issue 3
May 2006, pages 223-285
pp 223-235 May 2006
Success of ring closure reactions of substrates having two terminal alkenes through olefin metathesis depends on a number of factors such as catalysts, nature and size of the rings to be formed and the substituents/functional groups present on the alkenes as well as at the allylic position. This article presents an overview of these influencing factors with illustrative examples.
pp 237-242 May 2006
Reaction of oligomeric Cu(I) complexes [Cu(Μ-S-C(=NR)(O-Ar-CH3)]n with Lewis acids gave Cu(I) carbene complexes, which were characterized by1H and13C NMR spectroscopy. Cu(I) carbene complexes could be directly generated from RNCS, Cu(I)-OAr and Lewis acids; this method can be used to prepare Cu(I) carbene complexes with different substitutents on the carbene carbon. The complexes were unreactive towards olefins and do not undergo cyclopropanation. Electronic structure calculations (DFT) show that the charge on the carbene carbon plays an important role in controlling the reactivity of the carbene complex.
pp 243-248 May 2006
A new class of compounds of the family M(H2O)6(OPTA)2 (where M = Co(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II); OPTA = 1-oxopyridinium-2-thioacetato) was prepared from the appropriate metal acetates, 1-oxo-pyridinium-2-thioacetic acid (OPTAH), and potassium hydroxide in hydrothermal media and structurally characterized. The structure is constructed from M(H2O)62+ and two anions of OPTAH (C7H6NO3S) linked through hydrogen bonding into an extended network.
pp 249-256 May 2006
Curtius rearrangement reactions of 3-(4-azidocarbonyl) phenylsydnone. Synthesis of 4-(sydnon-3-yl) phenyl carbamates, N-aryl-N′-[4-(sydnon-3-yl)] phenyl ureas and their antimicrobial and insecticidal activities
3-[4-(Azidocarbonyl)]phenylsydnone (2) obtained from 3-(4-hydrazinocarbonyl) phenylsydnone (1) on Curtius rearrangement with alcohols, water and amines afforded the corresponding carbamates (3a-h), 4,4′-(sydnone-3-yl) diphenyl urea (4) and 4-(heterocyclyl)phenyl ureas (5a-l). Compounds (5a-l) on one-pot ring conversion yielded the 1,3,4-oxadiazolin-2-one derivatives (6a-l), which on reaction with N2H4 gave the 4-amino-1,2,4-triazolin-3-ones (7a-l). All these compounds exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity against the few microbes tested. The carbamates have been found to be more toxic against fourth instar larvae ofAedes aegypti, in particular, then-butyl derivative (3e).
pp 257-260 May 2006
Rate of reaction between benzyl bromide and diphenyl amine is retarded by electron-donating groups and enhanced by electron-withdrawing groups present on the benzene ring of the substrate. Hammett’s reaction constant p of the reaction decreases with increase in temperature according to the equation, ρ =-11.92+ 3.54/T.
Minimal structural effects observed are attributed to the fact that the isokinetic temperature of the reaction is close to the reaction temperature.
pp 261-267 May 2006
Influence of the presence of CO2, which is a mild oxidant, on the performance of the thermal cracking of ethane to ethylene in the absence or presence of limited O2 at different temperatures (750–900‡C), space velocities (1500–9000 h-1) and CO2/C2H6 and O2/C2H6 mole ratios (0–2.0 and 0–0.3 respectively) has been investigated. In both the presence and absence of limited O2, ethane conversion increases markedly because of the presence of CO2, indicating its beneficial effect on the ethane to ethylene cracking. The increased ethane conversion is, however, not due to the oxidation of ethane to ethylene by CO2; the formation of carbon monoxide in the presence of CO2 is found to be very small. It is most probably due to the activation of ethane in the presence of CO2.
pp 269-274 May 2006
Fundamental properties, density (ρ) and viscosity (η), of citric acid (CA) and disodium hydrogen orthophosphate (DSP) at various strengths were obtained at different temperatures. The ρ and η values were used to determine apparent molal volumes and viscosity of systems. The ρ, VΦ and η values were regressed against molalitym for ρ0, η0 and VΦ0, the limiting constants at infinite dilution (m → 0) for ionic and molecular interactions. The ρ0 and VΦ0 of aq. acids are higher than those of aq. DSP and the viscosity of DSP is higher than that of aq. CA. Examination of ρ0 and VΦ0 functions indicates that mutual compositions of CA and DSP counterbalance concentration and temperature effects on pH in bioprocesses.
pp 275-279 May 2006
A comprehensive study of the electrochemical reduction of Β-nitrostyrene and the corresponding heterocyclic analogue has been carried out in aprotic media using wax-impregnated carbon paste electrodes. Nitrostyrene exhibits quasi-reversible reduction process in aprotic medium at the waximpregnated carbon paste electrodes as compared to other electrodes reported in the literature. The nitroradical anion couple detected in the presence of tetrabutyl ammonium perchlorate is found to be stable only in aprotic media. Though, as reported, the pharmacological activity related to this nitro radical anion and its therapeutic value are related to the stability of the nitro radical anion, the stability itself depends on the electrode system employed. Added benzoic acid is found to bring about a positive shift in cathodic peak potential.
pp 281-285 May 2006
The γcmc values of CTAB-SDS decrease from 63.67 mN/m at 10‡C to 36.38 mN/m at 90‡C, slightly lower than those of either CTAB or SDS. Correspondingly, the CMC of CTAB-SDS decreases almost by half. The increase of surface activity of CTAB-SDS can be attributed to the relatively weak electrostatic interaction at high temperature, which is supported by the increase of solubility of CTAB-SDS with rise in temperature. Catalytic effect on oxidation of toluene derivatives with potassium permanganate follows the order CTAB-SDS > SDS > CTAB. This is not caused by the dissociative effect of CTAB-SDS with low surface activity at low temperature, as seen from the fact that almost all oxidative products can be retrieved for different toluene derivatives and surfactants by mimicking the conditions of reaction. In the emulsifications of toluene derivatives at 90‡C, the time that turbid water layers of surfactant solutions take to become clear is the same as that of the catalytic effect on oxidation of toluene derivatives. Thus, it can be inferred that surfactants can improve the oxidation yields of toluene derivatives by increasing the contact between two reacting phases.
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