Volume 114, Issue 6
December 2002, pages 521-791
pp 521-521 December 2002 Recent Advances in Photochemistry
pp 523-531 December 2002
The reactions of indol-2,3-dione derivatives with 3-phenyl-5-isoxazolone, 2-thiazoline-2-thiol, 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone under photochemical conditions have been described. The UV light-induced irradiation mainly produced benzazepine and quinoline carboxylic acid derivatives. The products have been characterized on the basis of spectral data and elemental analyses.
pp 533-538 December 2002
Photoinduced electron transfer from chlorophyll-a throughtheinterface of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) headgroup of the lipid bilayers was studied with electron magnetic resonance (EMR). The photoproduced radicals were identified with electron spin resonance (ESR) and radical yields of chlorophyll-a were determined by double integration ESR spectra. The formation of vesicles was identified by changes in measured λmax values from diethyl ether solutions to vesicles solutions indirectly, and observed directly with SEM and TEM images. The efficiency of photosynthesis in model system was determined by measuring the amount of chlorophyll-a radical yields which were obtained from integration of ESRspectra.
pp 539-545 December 2002
Transition metal ions are notorious for their fluorescence quenching abilities. In this paper, we discuss the design strategies for the development of efficientoff-on fluorescence signalling systems for the transition metal ions. It is shown that even simplefluorophore-spacer-receptor systems can display excellentoff-on fluorescence signalling towards the quenching metal ions when the fluorophore component is chosen judiciously.
pp 547-556 December 2002
Steady state fluorescence emission and transient absorption spectra of 9-fluorenone (9FL) were measured in the presence of 5-hydroxyindole (5HI) in highly polar acetonitrile (ACN) environment at ambient temperature. Cyclic voltammetry measurements demonstrate that ground state 5HI as a donor could take part in highly exothermic electron transfer (ET) reactions with excited 9FL, which should serve as electron acceptor. From the transient absorption measurements it is inferred that in geminate ion-pair (GIP) (or contact ion pair), formed initially due to photoinduced ET, the decay of this contact ion-pair occurs not only through ion recombination (back electron transfer to ground state of reactants), but through the other processes also such as proton-transfer (hydrogen abstraction) from radical cation to anion and separation of ion-pair producing the free ions. From the computed reorganisation energy parameter (λ) and experimentally observed -‡ET0 values it is hinted that there is a possibility that highly exothermic forward electron transfer reactions in the singlet stateS1 occur, within present reacting systems, in Marcus inverted region. Back transfer seems to follow the same path. Investigations with similar other reacting systems are underway.
pp 557-564 December 2002
The excited state absorption cross-section of 5,5′-dichloro-11-diphenyl-amino-3,3′-diethyl-10, 12-ethylinethiatricarbocyanine perchlorate (IR140) have been measured by using a single beam transmission technique. Z-scan experiments have been used to find out a few nonlinear parameters. The excited state relaxation times have also been measured by using laser induced transient grating (LITG) technique.
pp 565-578 December 2002
A new family of covalently linked ‘Sn(IV) porphyrin-anthracene’ diad (1), triad (2) and tetrad (3) donor-acceptor (D-A) systems have been designed and synthesized in good-to-moderate yields. While diad 1 possesses one anthracene subunit at the peripheral (meso) position of the tin(IV) porphyrin scaffold, triad 2 possesses twotrans axial anthracene subunits at the tin(IV) centre. On the other hand, tetrad 3 is endowed with both the peripheral and axial anthracene subunits in its architecture. These D-A systems have been fully characterised by elemental analysis, FAB-MS, UV-Vis,1H and13C NMR and electrochemical methods. UV-Vis,NMR and redox data suggest the absence of intramolecular π-π interaction between the porphyrin and the anthracene/s in 1–3. Fluorescence from the anthracene subunit in 1 and 3 is found to be quenched in comparison with the fluorescence of free anthracene in four different solvents. This is not the case with compound 2. Excitation spectral data provides evidence for an intramolecular excitation energy transfer (EET) from the singlet anthracene to the porphyrin in 1 and 3. The energy transfer efficiency is in the order: 2 (almost negligible) < 3 (~30%) < 1 (nearly quantitative), with the peripheral anthracene → porphyrin pathway being largely favoured. This orientation dependence of EET could be analysed using Forster's dipole dipole mechanism.
pp 579-592 December 2002
Site-specific photocleavage of hen egg lysozyme and bovine serum albumin (BSA) by N-(L-phenylalanine)-4(1-pyrene)butyramide (Py-Phe) is investigated in detail with respect to its efficiency, dependence on oxygen, and radical quenchers. Binding of Py-Phe to BSA follows abiphasic process with two binding sites per protein. The photocleavage was achieved upon irradiating a mixture of protein, Py-Phe and Co(III)hexammine (CoHA) at 344 nm. No protein cleavage was observed in the absence of Py-Phe, or CoHA, or light. Photocleavage of BSA was inhibited by degassing or by the addition of radical quenchers such as ethanol. In addition, the photoreaction was quenched by electron donors such as ethanolamine. This result was corroborated by the flash photolysis studies where the cation radical derived from the probe is also quenched by ethanolamine with an equivalent rate constant. Quenching of the singlet excited state of Py-Phe by CoHA followed by the reaction of the resulting pyrenyl cation radical with the protein backbone is the suggested mechanism of protein cleavage. The origin of the specificity of photocleavage is discussed and specificity is valuable in targeting desired sites of proteins with small molecules.
pp 593-602 December 2002
An intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) molecule,p-N,N-dimethyl-aminobenzoic acid (DMABA) has been studied in zeolite and colloidal media. The ratio of ICT to normal emission (ICT/LE) is greatly enhanced in zeolites compared to that in polar solvents. The ICT emission of DMABA was quenched by increasing the concentration of TiO2 colloids, while the normal emission was slightly enhanced. Upon illumination of the heteropoly acid (HPA) incorporated TiO2 colloids, interfacial electron transfer takes place from the conduction band of TiO2 to the incorporated HPA which is also excited to catalyze the photoreduction of Methyl Orange. It is found that the interfacial electron transfer mechanism of HPA/TiO2 is quite analogous to the Z-scheme mechanism for plant photosynthetic systems. In DMABA-adsorbed TiO2/Y-zeolite the ICT/LE ratio of DMABA is quite small implying that electron transfer takes place from DMABA to the conduction band of TiO2. This results in drastic enhancement in the photocatalytic activity of DMABA-adsorbed TiO2/Y-zeolite compared to free TiO2/Y-zeolite.
pp 603-609 December 2002
Naphthyldiene derivatives,1-4, carrying electron-donating groups at one end and electron-withdrawing groups at the other, were synthesized to study the photoisomerization process. All the compounds showed efficient photoisomerization upon direct excitation leading to the formation of 4-Z isomer with high selectivity. Triplet sensitization studies indicated inefficientE-Z isomerization process. Room temperature fluorescence of1 and2 displayed fine structure in hexane solvent and the same was replaced by broad or structureless fluorescence in acetonitrile and methanol solvents. A mechanism involving a polarized or charge transfer singlet excited state is proposed for the observed photoisomerization in these naphthyldiene derivatives.
pp 611-621 December 2002
Transient dynamics of allophycocyanin trimers and monomers are observed by using the pump-probe, transient absorption technique. The origin of spectral components of the transient absorption spectra is discussed in terms of both kinetics and spectroscopy. We find that the energy gap between the ground and excited states of the unexcited subunit of allophycocyanin monomer decreases via an interaction with another excited subunit. For allophycocyanin trimer, we find that the fast dynamics results from the fast internal conversion and the first excited state is the only one electronic state which can trap the final population.
pp 623-638 December 2002
This paper presents the evolution of views on methyl internal rotation potential barrier. Various mechanisms proposed for the origin of torsional barrier in ethane have been reviewed. Inadequacy of one dimensional description of internal rotation has been highlighted in small methyl conjugated molecules in the light of its multidimensional nature. The effect of skeletal flexing on the picture of barrier formation by dissecting the barrier energy into potential type, virial type and symmetry type is described. The role of π and σ electrons at different stages of molecular flexing is discussed. The analysis identifies the dominant contributions to barrier origin as π-bonding changes during rigid rotation and σ-bonding changes resulting from bond lengthening during methyl group rotation. The contribution of lone pair electrons in determining the preferred structure of the methyl group in imine compounds such as 1-methyl 2-(1H)-pyridinimine is presented.
pp 639-648 December 2002
Laser isotope separation (LIS) by infrared laser chemistry of polyatomic molecules has come a long way since its discovery. The last decade has seen considerable efforts in scaling up of the process for light elements like carbon, oxygen and silicon. These efforts aim at ways to improve both the enrichment factor and the throughput. The achievement is quite significant especially for carbon isotope separation wherein macroscopic operating scales have been realized. We report our studies on the IR laser chemistry of two promising systems, viz. neat CF2HCl and CF3Br/Cl2. We have investigated conditions for optimizing the dissociation yield and selectivity using natural samples containing l.l%C-13.Wealso highlight our current efforts for scaling up the process. These include the design aspects of a photochemical reactor with multipass refocusing Herriott optics for efficient photon utilization, development of a cryogenic distillation set up and a preparative gas chromatograph for large scale separation/collection of the isotopically enriched photoproduct in the post-irradiation stage.
pp 649-657 December 2002
The process of infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) of molecules is of great fundamental importance and has practical significance, such as isotope separation etc. Unfortunately, a clear insight into the process has been hindered by the bewildering array of important variables affecting MPD. The dissociation probability γ (φ) i.e. the yield has been found to be a sensitive function of laser fluence φ along with numerous other parameters like laser frequency, gas pressure etc. We have shown that in single frequency IRMPD, an accurate quantitative characterization of the dissociation probability can be adequately expressed by a ‘power law’ model with two fitting parameters namely critical fluence, φc and multiphoton order,m. This model was exploited in analysing our MPD results on various systems. However, the small isotope shift encountered in heavy elements and the sticking phenomenon observed in small light molecules restrict respectively the separation factor and the dissociation yield. These problems can effectively be tackled by irradiation with multifrequency laser beams which can be chosen appropriately on the basis of spectroscopic features. Based on our success in single frequency model, multifrequency IRMPD is modelled by a functional form containing the product of power law terms for individual fluences on irradiation frequencies. This model is successfully benchmarked with our experimental results on multifrequency LIS of tritium. Such knowledge can be utilized for appropriate separation process design, evaluation and optimization.
pp 659-673 December 2002
Selective multi-photon dissociation (MPD) of Freon-22 (CF2HC1) molecules has been carried out using a TEA CO2 laser at various CO2 laser lines (9P(20)-9P(26)) in order to maximize the yield of C-13 isotope in the product (C2F4) at an enrichment factor of 100. The effects of laser pulse tail due to the presence of N2 in the laser mixture on the enrichment factor and yield of C-13 are investigated. It is found that the addition of a small amount of N2 is possible in the laser mixture without a significant drop in the yield at desired enrichment factor. Addition of a small amount of N2 improves the laser efficiency considerably. At a given pulse energy, a slight change in the near field intensity distribution of a laser severely affects the selectivity of C-13 isotope. The computed far-field intensity distributions of the measured near-field intensities show marked spatial variation in the focal spots that leads to a drop in selectivity. For macroscopic production of C-13 isotope a simple and novel multi-pass cavity has been designed and tested to focus the energy repeatedly keeping the optimum fluence constant at each focal spot.
pp 675-686 December 2002
The dynamics of formation of oxygen atoms after UV photoexcitation of SO2 in the gas-phase was studied by pulsed laser photolysis-laser-inducedfluorescence ‘pump-and-probe’ technique in a flow reactor. SO2 at room-temperature was excited at the KrCl excimer laser wavelength (222.4 nm) and O(3Pj) photofragments were detected under collision-free conditions by vacuum ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence. The use of narrow-band probe laser radiation, generated viaresonant third-order sum-difference frequency conversion of dye laser radiation in Krypton, allowed the measurement of the nascent O(3Pj=2,1,0) fine-structure state distribution:nj=2/nj=1/nj=0 = (0.88 ± 0.02)/(0.10 ± 0.01)/(0.02 ± 0.01). Employing NO2photolysis as a reference, a value of Φ0(3P) = 0.13 ± 0.05 for the absolute O(3P) atom quantum yield was determined. The measured O(3P) quantum yield is compared with the results of earlier fluorescence quantum yield measurements. A suitable mechanism is suggested in which the dissociation proceeds via internal conversion from high rotational states of the initially excited SO2(~C1B2 (1, 2, 2) vibronic level to nearby continuum states of the electronic ground state.
pp 687-696 December 2002
The interaction of 8-methoxypyrimido[4′,5′:4,5]thieno(2,3-b)quinoline-4(3H)one (MPTQ) with DNA was studied by UV-Vis and fluorescence spectrophotometry as well as by hydrodynamic methods. On binding to DNA, the absorption spectrum underwent bathochromic and hypochromic shifts and the fluorescence was quenched. Binding parameters, determined from spectrophotometric measurements by Scatchard analysis, indicated a binding constant of 3.56 × 106 M−1 for calf thymus DNA at ionic strength 0.01 M. Binding to the GC-rich DNA ofMicrococcus lysodeikticus was stronger than the binding to calf thymus DNA at ionic strength 0.01 M. The MPTQ increased the viscosity of sonicated rod-like DNA fragments, producing a calculated length of 2.4Å/bound MPTQ molecule. The binding of MPTQ to DNA increased the melting temperature by about 4 °C. This research offers a new intercalation functional group to DNA targetted drug design.
pp 697-704 December 2002
Deaerated 5 M NaCl solution is irradiated in the presence of UO2 pellets with α-radiation from238Pu. Experiments are conducted with238Pu doped pellets and others with238Pu dissolved in the brine. The radiolysis products and yields of mobilized U and Pu from the oxidative dissolution of UO2 are determined. Results found for radiolysis products and for the oxidation/dissolution of pellets immersed in Pu containing brine are similar to results for Pu doped pellets, where the radiation chemical processes occur only in the liquid layer of some 10 σm thickness adjacent to the pellet. The yield of radiolysis products is comparable to earlier results, that of mobilized U from the pellets is < 1% of the total amount of oxidized species. Thus, the radiation chemical yield (G-value) for mobilized hexavalent U is < 0.01 ions/100 eV. In spite of the low radiation yield for the corrosion, the rate of UO2dissolution is higher than expected for the concentrations of long-lived oxidizing radiolysis compounds found in the solutions.
pp 705-711 December 2002
Radiation oxidative damage to plasma membrane and its consequences to cellular radiosensitivity have received increasing attention in the past few years. This review gives a brief account of radiation oxidative damage in model and cellular membranes with particular emphasis on results from our laboratory. Fluorescence and ESR spin probes have been employed to investigate the structural and functional alterations in membranes after y-irradiation. Changes in the lipid bilayer in irradiated unilamellar liposomes prepared from egg yolk lecithin (EYL) were measured by using diphenylhexatriene (DPH) as a probe. The observed increase in DPH polarization and decrease in fluorescence intensity after γ-irradiation of liposomes imply radiation-induced decrease in bilayer fluidity. Inclusion of cholesterol in liposome was found to protect lipids against radiation damage, possibly by modulation of bilayer organization e.g. lipid packing. Measurements on dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) liposomes loaded with 6-carboxyfluorescein (CF) showed radiation dose-dependent release of the probe indicating radiation-induced increased permeability. Changes in plasma membrane permeability of thymocytes were monitored by fluorescein diacetate (FDA) and induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined by 2,7-dichlorodihydro fluorescein diacetate (DCH-FDA). Results suggest a correlation between ROS generation and membrane permeability changes induced by radiation within therapeutic doses (0-10 Gy). It is concluded that increase in membrane permeability was the result of ROS-mediated oxidative reactions, which might trigger processes leading to apoptotic cell death after radiation exposure.
pp 713-719 December 2002
Several plant products are known to exhibit immense medicinal value against human diseases. Our earlier studies showed that dry stem crude extract (DSCE) ofTinospora cordifolia contained a polyclonal B cell mitogen, G1-4A. DSCE as well as G1-4A also enhanced immune response in mice. In order to explore the possibility of using G1-4A/PPI (partially purified immunomodulator) to modulate radiation induced immunosuppression, the antioxidant effect of PPI from this plant was examined against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), generated by photosensitization/peroxynitrite. Levels of lipid peroxidation products, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in liver/spleen homogenate from mouse were monitored. Photosensitization induced significant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in liver. The activities of SOD and catalase were reduced considerably. PPI, present during photosensitisation, prevented lipid peroxidation and restored the activities of both the enzymes. Likewise, oxidative damage induced by peroxynitrite was inhibited by PPI. The degradation of proteins due to photosensitization as assessed by SDS-PAGE was effectively reduced by simultaneous treatment with PPI during photosensitization. Selective inhibitors of ROS like mannitol, SOD, sodium azide and antioxidants, GSH and vitamin C brought about significant inhibition of formation of TBARS suggesting possible involvement of O2•,•OH and1O2. Photosensitization in deuterated buffer enhanced formation of TBARS thus indicating generation of1O2. Thus, the action of PPI may be against oxidative damage through Type I and II photosensitization mechanisms. Therefore, the immunomodulator fromTinospora cordifolia may also be beneficial as an antioxidant.
pp 721-730 December 2002
Radiation chemical reactions of•OH, O•−, N3•and eaqt- witho- and m-hydroxycinnamic acids were studied. The second-orderrateconstantsforthereaction of•OH with ortho and meta isomers in buffer solution at pH7 are 3.9±0.2 × 109 and 4.4 ± 0.3 × 109 dm3 mol-1 s-1 respectively. At pH 3 the rate with the ortho isomer was halved (1.6 ± 0.4 × 109 dm3 mol-1 s-1) but it was unaffected in the case of meta isomer (k = 4.2±0.6 × 109dm3mol-1 s-1). The rate constant in the reaction of N3• with the ortho isomer is lower by an order of magnitude (k = 4.9 ± 0.4 × 108 dm3 mol-1s-1). The rates of the reaction of eaqt- with ortho and meta isomers were found to be diffusion controlled. The transient absorption spectrum measured in the•OH witho-hydroxycinnamic acid exhibited an absorption maximum at 360 nm and in meta isomer the spectrum was blue-shifted (330 nm) with a shoulder at 390 nm. A peak at 420 nm was observed in the reaction of Obb−with theo-isomer whereas the meta isomer has a maximum at 390 and a broad shoulder at 450 nm. In the reaction of the absorption peaks were centred at 370–380 nm in both the isomers. The underlying reaction mechanism is discussed.
pp 731-737 December 2002
The kinetics of the reactions of hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen atoms with some aliphatic alcohols in aqueous solutions were studied using pulse radiolysis. Based on the increase in optical absorption in the UV region, the rate constants for the reaction of hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen atoms with methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol ort-butyl alcohol were determined to be 9.0 × 108, 2.2 × 109, 2.0 × 109,6.2×l08 and 1.1 × 106, 1.8 × 107, 5.3 × 107, 2.3 × 105 dm3 mol−1 s−1 respectively. The bimolecular decay rate constants for the alcohol radicals produced in methanol and ethanol were evaluated to be 2.4 × 109 and 1.5 × 109 dm3 mol−1s−1. The values observed are in fairly good agreement with those reported earlier.
pp 739-747 December 2002
The free radical scavenging properties and possible antioxidant activity of 1,3-diphenylpropane-1,3-dione (1) are reported. Pulse radiolysis technique was employed to study the one-electron oxidation of 1 with various radicals viz. CCl3O2•, N3• and•OH in homogeneous aqueous solution. All these radicals reacted with 1 under ambient conditions at almost diffusion controlled rates producing transient species with an absorption maximum around 420 nm that decayed at first order rates. The transient absorption peak was shifted in the case of CCl3OO• radical reaction with 1 due to change in the polarity of the medium. Formation of a stable product with a broad absorption band starting from 400 nm and cut off at 230 nm was observed in the oxidation of 1 with•OH and•N3 radicals. In a biological system also, 1 showed significant inhibitory activity against Fe2+-mediatedlipidperoxidation. Based on these observations, a suitable mechanism for the oxidation of 1 has been proposed.
pp 749-758 December 2002
In neutral aqueous solution of (phenylthio)acetic acid, hydroxyl radical is observed to react with a bimolecular rate constant of 7.2 × 10-1 dm3 mol−s− and the transient absorption bands are assigned to•OH radical addition to benzene and sulphur with a rough estimated values of 50 and 40% respectively. The reaction of the•OH radical with diphenyl sulphide (k = 4.3 × 108 dm3 mol−1 s−1) is observed to take place with formation of solute radical cation, OH-adduct at sulphur and benzene with estimated values of about 12, 28 and 60% respectively. The transient absorption bands observed on reaction of•OH radical, in neutral aqueous solution of 4-(methylthio)phenyl acetic acid, are assigned to solute radical cation (λmax = 550 and 730 nm), OH-adduct at sulphur (λmax = 360 nm) and addition at benzene ring (λmax = 320 nm). The fraction of•OH radical reacting to form solute radical cation is observed to depend on the electron-withdrawing power of substituted group. In acidic solutions, depending on the concentration of acid and electron-withdrawing power, solute radical cation is the only transient species formed on reaction of•OH radical with the sulphides studied.
pp 759-774 December 2002
pp 775-785 December 2002 Recent Advances in Photochemistry
pp 786-791 December 2002 Recent Advances in Photochemistry
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