Volume 20, Issue 4
September 1995, pages 461-572
pp 461-471 September 1995
The non-transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase, PTP-S, is located predominantly in the cell nucleus in association with chromatin. Here we have analysed the expression of PTP-S upon mitogenic stimulation and during cell division cycle. During liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy, PTP-S mRNA levels increased 16-fold after 6 h (G1 phase) and declined thereafter. Upon stimulation of serum starved cells in culture with serum, PTP-S mRNA levels increased reaching a maximum during late G1 phase and declined thereafter. No significant change in PTP-S RNA levels was observed in growing cells during cell cycle. PTP-S protein levels were also found to increase upon mitogenic stimulation. Upon serum starvation for 72 h, PTP-S protein disappears from the nucleus and is seen in the cytoplasm; after 96 h of serum starvation the PTP-S protein disappears from the nucleus as well as cytoplasm. Refeeding of starved cells for 6 h results in reappearance of this protein in the nucleus. Our results suggest a role of this phosphatase during cell proliferation.
pp 473-480 September 1995
Determination of anteroposterior and dorsoventral axes is an important early event in the development of vertebrates involving extensive cellular interactions including inductive events. Recently we showed that insulin plays an essential role in prepancreatic development of the frogMicrohyla ornata. In the present study we have investigated the effects of immunoneutralization of endogenous insulin on the process of pattern formation. Treatment of neurulating embryos with antiserum to insulin caused abnormal pattern formation. The defects included loss of normal architecture of the neural tube, reduction in the size of the neural tube and, most conspicuously, rotation of the dorsoventral axis of the neural tube, notochord and adjoining mesodermal elements. The effects could be alleviated partially by pretreatment of embryos with exogenous insulin. This supports our belief that insulin plays an important role in induction and pattern formation of the amphibian nervous system.
In addition, using 2-deoxy-α-D-glucose, an inhibitor of glucose metabolism, it is shown that the stimulatory effects of exogenous insulin on developing frog embryos are, at least partially, through the glucose metabolism pathway.
pp 481-491 September 1995
The effects of sodium azide and trifluoperazine on growth, cAMP-chemotaxis, morphogenesis and cell differentiation in the slime mouldDictyostelium discoideum were examined. Growth rate of cells pretreated with low chemical concentrations was reduced directly after the treatment but was partially recovered within two to three hours. The levels of growth inhibition were directly proportional to the chemical concentrations. Low concentrations of trifluoperazine (1 μM) had no clear effect on the morphogenesis of the wild type strain HM27, but induced partial phenotype correction in the final fruiting body of the sporogenous mutant HM28. On the other hand, all relatively non toxic treatments with sodium azide had no effect on morphogenesis of both strains and on cell differentiation of the wild type strain HM27. Both trifluoperazine and sodium azide shifted cell differentiation of the sporogenous mutant HM28 in monolayers from spore- to stalk-pathway. Higher concentrations of both chemicals inhibited cell differentiation in all strains completely. The results indicated that these chemicals influenced the effects of the sporogenous locus which plays a role in the spore/stalk determination mechanism in the sporogenous mutant HM28.
pp 493-498 September 1995
Changes in the concentration of glycogen in various areas of the brain of epileptic rats were investigated. Epilepsy was induced by implantation of cobalt discs on the right sensory motor cortex and epileptic animals have shown clear tonic-clonic jerks of the contra-lateral fore and hind limbs.
It was found that glycogen concentration was increased by 29% in the epileptogenic sensory motor cortex as compared to the same area in the contra-lateral hemisphere. Glycogen concentration in other areas within the same hemisphere remained unaffected.
Implantation of nickel or copper on the same sensory motor cortex, which did not cause the typical limb jerks of epilepsy, had no effect on glycogen concentration in the same treated areas. Assay of relevant metabolites in the epileptic cortex showed an increase in the concentration of pyruvate and glucose-6-phosphate, by 218% and 112% respectively. The results suggest that the increased glycogen concentration in epileptogenic focus results from increased uptake of glucose due to neuronal hyperexcitability.
pp 499-513 September 1995
The thermal sensitivity and heat shock response of the different races of the mulberry silkwormBombyx mori have been analysed. The multivoltine race, strainsC. Nichi andPure Mysore showed better survival rates than the bivoltine race, strainNB4D2 exposed to 41°C and above. In general, the fifth instar larvae and the pupae exhibited maximum tolerance compared to the early larval instars, adult moths or the eggs. Exposure up to 39°C for 1 or 2 h was tolerated equally whereas temperatures above 43°C proved to be lethal for all. Treatment of larvae at 41°C for 1 h resulted in a variety of physiological alterations including increased heart beat rates, differential haemocyte counts, enlargement of granulocytes and the presence of additional protein species in the tissues and haemolymph. The appearance of a 93 kDa protein in the haemolymph, fat bodies and cuticle, following the heat shocking of larvaein vivo was a characteristic feature in all the three strains examined although the kinetics of their appearance itself was different. In haemolymph, the protein appeared immediately in response to heat shock inC. Nichi reaching the maximal levels in 2–4 h whereas its presence was noticeable only after 2–4 h recovery time inPure Mysore and bivoltine races. The fat body from bothC. Nichi andNB4D2 showed the presence of 93 kDa, 89 kDa and 70 kDa proteins on heat shock. The haemocytes, on the other hand, expressed only a 70 kDa protein consequent to heat shock. The 93 kDa protein in the haemolymph, therefore could have arisen from some other tissue, possibly the fat body. The 93 kDa protein was detected after heat shock in pupae and adult moths as well, although the presence of an additional (56 kDa) protein was also apparent in the adults. The presence of 46 kDa and 28 kDa bands in addition to the 93 kDa band in the cuticular proteins immediately following heat shock was clearly discernible. The 70 kDa band did not show much changes in the cuticular proteins on heat shock. In contrast to the changes in protein profiles seen in tissues and haemolymph following heat shockin vivo, the heat treatment of isolated fat body or haemolymphin vitro resulted in protein degradation.
pp 515-523 September 1995
Relationship between the levels of MHC class 1 antigen expressed on tumour cells and their susceptibility to allogenic and xenogenic NK cells was investigated. Mouse and human natural killer-resistance inducing factor (NK-RIF) preparations were used for augmenting/inducing MHC 1 antigen expression on murine YAC and human K562 tumour cells, respectively YAC cells with augmented MHC I antigen expression became relatively resistant to lysis by murine NK cells but not to rat NK cells. Similarly, induction of MHC I antigens on K562 cells reduced their susceptibility to human NK cells but not to monkey NK cells. These results indicate that the inverse correlation of MHC I antigen expression and NK susceptibility does not hold true for xenogenic pairs of NK effector and target cells.
pp 525-530 September 1995
Microviscosity of the highly purified plasma membranes isolated from the maturing goat caput, corpus and cauda epididymal sperm, was measured using l,6-diphenyl-l,3,5-hexatriene as the lipophilic probe at varying temperatures (12–42°C). As shown by the Arrhenius plot of the data each of the maturing sperm membranes had two distinct lipid phase transitions in the temperature zones 19–25°C and 34–37°C. The low-temperature transitions for the immature caput- and mature cauda-sperm membranes were noted at 19–20°C, and 24–25°C, respectively, whereas both these membranes showed high temperature transition at 36–37°C. The maturing corpus-sperm membrane had phase transitions at 21–22°C and 35–36°C that were significantly different from those of the immature/mature sperm membranes. The data implicate significant alteration of the sperm membrane structure during epididymal maturation. The phase transition of the mature male gametes at 36–37°C may have a great impact on the subsequent events of the sperm life cycle since the mature spermatozoa that are stored in the epididymis a few degrees below the body temperature, experience higher temperature when ejaculated into the female reproductive tract.
pp 531-549 September 1995
Chlorogenic acid, 3’-O-caffeoyl D-quinic acid, is an inherent ligand present inHelianthus annuus L. The effect of pH on chlorogenic acid binding to helianthinin suggests that maximum binding occurs at pH 6.0. The protein-polyphenol complex precipitates as a function of time. The association constant of the binding of chlorogenic acid to helianthinin, determined by equilibrium dialysis, at 31°C has a value of 3.5 ± 0.1 × 104M−-1 resulting in a ΔG value of − 6.32 ± 0.12 kcal /mol. The association constantKais 1.0 ± 0.1 × 104M−1 as determined by ultraviolet difference spectral titration at 25°C with ΔG° of -5.46 ± 0.06 kcal/mol. From fluorescence spectral titration at 28°C, theKavalue is 1.38 ± 0.1 × 1 0 4M−1 resulting in a ΔG of − 5.70 ± 0.05 kcal/mol. The total number of binding sites on the protein are 420 ± 50 as calculated from equilibrium dialysis. Microcalorimetric data of the ligand-protein interaction at 23°C suggests mainly two classes of binding. The thermal denaturation temperature,Tmof the protein decreases from 76°C to 72°C at 1 × 10−3M chlorogenic acid concentration upon complexation. This suggests that the complexation destabilizes the protein. The effect of temperature onKaof chlorogenic acid shows a nonlinear increase from 10.2°C to 45°C. Chemical modification of both lysyl and tryptophanyl residues of the protein decreases the strength of binding of chlorogenic acid. Lysine, tryptophan and tyrosine of protein are shown to be present at the binding site. Based on the above data, it is suggested that charge-transfer complexation and entropically driven hydrophobic interaction are the predominant forces that are responsible for binding of chlorogenic acid to the multisubunit protein, helianthinin.
pp 551-561 September 1995
Two forms of biologically active gonadotropin releasing hormones were isolated from the hypothalami ofCatla catla. Gonadotropin releasing hormone activity was studiedin vitro using enzymatically dispersed carp pituitary cell incubation system. Gonadotropin released into the medium was measured by carp gonadotropin-radio immuno assay. Acetic acid extracted hypothalamic material was subjected to acetone fractionation. Among the three protein pellets obtained at different time periods (ACI, ACII and ACIII), AC II exhibited the gonadotropin releasing hormone activity. Gel filtration of AC II through Sephadex G-25 column showed three protein peaks (SG I, SG II SGIII) and only S G II demonstrated strong gonadotropin releasing hormone activity. Elution of SG II through FPLC Mono Q column (an anion exchanger) in NaCl gradient programme showed one unadsorbed (MQ I) and three adsorbed (MQ II, MQ III and MQ IV) protein peaks. MQ III, which was eluted with 51% NaCl, exhibited gonadotropin releasing hormone activity. Surprisingly, unadsorbed fractions, MQ I, also showed gonadotropin releasing hormone activity. MQ 1 was therefore subjected to FPLC Mono S (a cation exchanger) column chromatography where a highly active gonadotropin releasing hormone enriched peak, i.e., MS III, could be eluted with 45% NaCl. These findings show thatCatla catla hypothalamus has two forms of gonadotropin releasing hormones one anionic (carp gonadotropin releasing hormone I) and another cationic (carp gonadotropin releasing hormone II). These two forms of gonadotropin releasing hormones were also active in heterologous carp species, rohu(Labeo rohita), mrigal(Cirrhinus mrigala) and an exotic common carp(Cyprinus carpio). Combined activity of two forms of gonadotropin releasing hormones was significantly greater as compared to any of the single form.
pp 563-572 September 1995
In the subadultRana tigrina administration of 2 μg luteinizing hormone releasing hormone-acetate/frog six days a week for 4 weeks in April resulted in the formation of medium (in all 8 frogs) and large sized (in 4 out of 8 frogs) yolky oocytes and, concomitant increases in the oviductal mass. The ovarian and oviductal masses showed a 10-fold increase over the control frogs. In untreated frogs the ovaries were transparent and contained first growth phase oocytes only. The oviducts were also infantile.
The pituitary sections were stained using antisera raised in rabbit against the β-subunit of human luteinizing hormone and human follicle stimulating hormone. Immunoreactivity, staining intensity, cytoplasmic granulation and, cell, nuclear and cytoplasmic areas of gonadotrophs (B2 cells) increased significantly in luteinizing hormone releasing hormone treated frogs.
The above findings suggest that pituitary-ovarian axis in the subadultRana tigrina is responsive to luteinizing hormone releasing hormone and that long-term treatment with the hormone induces cytomorphological changes in the gonadotrophs which result in the conversion of inactive cells into secretory cells. This is accompanied by precocious vitellogenic growth of oocytes in the subadult frogs.