• Volume 19, Issue 3

      September 1994,   pages  277-352

    • A23187—Channel behaviour: Fluorescence study

      G Jyothi A Surolia K R K Easwaran

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      Pyranine entrapped soylipid liposomes have been used as a model system to study the proton transport across membrane in the presence of A23187, a carboxylic ionophore specific for electroneutral exchange of divalent cations. An apparent rate constant (kapp) for transport of protons has been determined from the rate of change of fluorescence intensity of pyranine by stopped flow rapid kinetics in the presence of proton gradient The variation of kapp has been studied as a function of ionophore concentration and the results have been compared with gramicidin—a well known channel former under the similar experimental conditions. The rates thus obtained showed that A23187 is not only a simple carrier but also shows channel behaviour at high concentration of ionophore.

    • Gonadotropin releasing hormone stimulation of pituitary cell 3′–5′ cyclic AMP in a carp(Cyprinus carpio) is dependent on extracellular calcium

      B Mukhopadhyay R Biswas S Bhattacharya

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      Pituitaries were collected from a common carp,yprinss carpi, belonging to vitellogenic phase and cells were disaggregated by using 0.3% collagenase and 0.05% tsypsin. Enzymatically dispersed cells were incubatedin vitro in Ca2+-free medium to observe the effect ofCanna punctatus GnRH (cGnRH) and Ca2+ on pituitary cell cAMP accumulation. Addition of cGnRH (20 Big) to pituitary cell incubation (6 × 104 cells/well) containing 4 mM theophylline, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, caused two-fold increase of cAMP accumulation in comparison to control, Addition of Ca2+ (2 mM) to cGnRH further augmented cAMP accumulation, i.e., four-fold as compared to control. Increasing concentrations of cGnRH in the presence of Ca2+ resulted in a dose-dependent increase in cAMP accumulation. To examine the specificity of Ca2+ augmentory effect on cGnRH-stimulated pituitary cell cAMP accumulation, a specific Ca2+-channel blocker, verapamil was used, At 3 µM dose verapamil completely waived Ca2+-augmentation of cGnRH stimulatory effect on cAMP. Interestingly, verapamil also significantly inhibited cGnRH stimulation of cAMP in the Ca2+-free medium. Extent of Ca2+ plus cGnRH stimulatory effect on cAMP was further increased by the addition of 25 pmol of calmodulin, a Ca2+-carrier protein, Addition of verapamil to this system strongly inhibited Ca2+ and ealmodulin augnientory effect on cGnRH. Reduced level of cAMP in the pituitary cell due to verapamil was even lower than that of cGnRH plus ealmodulin incubation. Data indicates a contamination of Ca2+ in an apparently Ca2+-free medium, Results suggest that in lower vertebrate, i.e., fish, GnRH stimulation of pituitary cell cAMP is dependent on extracellulnr Ca2+ and incubation of pituitary cell in Ca2+-free medium is truly not free of Ca2+.

    • Expression of antigens in virulent and avirulent Indian strains ofLeishmania donovani

      Tapati Sanyal Prosenjit Gangopadhyay Dilip K Ghost Dwijen Sarkar

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      Indo-Gen mediated surface labelling with125I demonstrated differences in surface oriented antigens between virulent and virulent promastigote ofLeishniania donovani, In case of virulent strains, surface polypeptides with molecular masses of 63, 53, 42 and 38 kDa were found to be labelled with125I whereas in the case of aviralent stains 68, 55, 50, 46, 42 and 33 Da, components were iodinated. Further studies by immunoblot assay using different subcellular fractions of virulent and avirulent parasites demonstrated that antibody raised against gp63 cross-reacted with the 63 and 60 kDa antigen of the virulent and avirulentLeishmania donovani strains of Indian origin respectively. It indicates that these two polypeptides are antigenically similar. When virulent and avirulent cells were grown in the presence of varying concentration of tunicarnycin and immunoblot with anti gp63, it was observed that with increasing concentration of tunicamycin the 63 kDa polypeptide of the virulent cells shifted to approximately 58–57 kDa and the 60 kDa polypoptide of the aviruleni cells shifted to 57 kDa. This suggests that glycosylation may play an important role in antigenic variation between virulent and avirulent parasites.

    • Effect of ammonia-stress on the total autolytic levels of proteins in tissues of an air-breathing fish,Channa punctatus (Bloch)

      T K Saha A B Das

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      G season-specific effect of a sub-lethal ambient ammonium chloride concentration on the total autolysis of protein in different tissues of the Indian air-breathing murrel,Chauna punctatos (Bloch), has been demonstrated. While its effect on the autotytie levels of protein of different tissues (except white muscle) was marginal in the winter-adapted fish, the same in the summer-adapted fish was more pronounced. In general a reduction in the autolysic levels of the tissue protein of the ammonium chloride-stressed fish was observed. In certain tissues like white muscle of an ammonium chloride-stressed fish and gill of the ammonium hydroxide-stressed fish, augmented levels of autolysis were noticed. The present findings suggest that the accumulation of amino acids in different tissues of the ammonia-stressed fish, as observed earlier, can be explained best by mechanisms other than ammonia induced increased breakdown of proteins.

    • Effect of strain rate on the fracture behaviour of skin

      V Arumugam M D Naresh R Sanjeevi

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      The effect of strain rate on the stress-strain behaviour of skin is studied. It is observed that the plastic set in the skin is dependent on strain rate. The scanning electron micrographs of the fractured skin sample shows thicker fibrils and thinner one at low strain rates. The plastic flow is clearly brought out in the stress-strain curves at different strain rates. The stress relaxation behaviour at any given strain is clearly brought out in the 3-dimensional plot.

    • Birth dynamics in Hanuman langurs,Presbytis entellus of Jodhpur, India

      L S Rajpurohit A Srivastava S M Mohnot

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      Ten years data on birth peak, birth rate and interbiith interval inPresbytis entellus of Jodhpur have been presented. Although Hangman langur females breed round the year, there is some concentration of births during January–March while fewer births occur during October–December. It seems that provisioning and crop raiding together may provide better feeding opportunities to breed year round. However, it remains unclear whether environmental factors allow langur females to deliver more infants during January–March. During 1984–86 the birth rate was uniform for the whole population (0.63). While there was a variation within the troops from year to year, data suggest that resident male replacements do alter birth rate. It goes down when resident males are replaced frequently. The interbirth interval ranges between 7.0 and 76.5 months (average, 16.88 months;n = 112). Abortions and still-births reduced the interbirlh interval to 7.1 months (range 7.1-21.1; average, 11.4 months;n= 8) compared to the normal inlerbirth interval following infant survive its first 4.1 months of life (range 10.7-76.5 months; average, 17.28 months;n = 86). However, infant loss under the age of 4.1 months did not reduce the interbirth interval except in two cases (range 7.0-51.8 months; average, 17.27 months;n = 18). Maternal rejection or weaning begins at about 8 months of age and lasts until infants are 12 months old. In this population, the probability of twin births was worked out to be 0.79 per 100 births.

    • Time estimation circadian rhythm in shift workers and diurnally active humans

      A K Pati S Gupta

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      The ability of shift workers to estimate timer intervals of short duration was examined. The study included 22 shift workers and 10 diurnally working control subjects. A circadian rhythm in time estimates was documented in control subjects, but it was found to bed disrupted in shift workers. Spectral analysis revealed frequency or circadian component in time estimates to be lower among the shift workers. Furthermore, an interesting relationship was marked between time estimates and oral temperature in 4 control subjects and 6 shift workers in that the time of the closest estimation coincided with the peak time of their body temperature.

    • Possible role of alternative respiration in temperature rise of water stressed plants

      Sanjay Kumar Suresh K Sinha

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      Role of alternative respiration, a thermogenic pathway, was evaluated in temperature rise of water stressed plants. Transpiration rate, plant temperature and respiratory dynamics were monitored in field grown irrigated and unirrigated sorghum(Sorghum vulgare Pers.) hybrid CSH 6 and pearl millet(Pennirelum typhoider (Burm. f.) Stapt and Hubbard) var. J 104 for 22 days. Transpiration rate of irrigated plants was always higher than the unirrigated plants. But the plant temperature and the alternative respiration activity of irrigated plants was always lower than unirrigated plants. The reduction in transpiration rate of unirrigated pearl millet was more as compared to unirrigated sorghum. Nonetheless, alternative respiration activity was higher in unirrigated sorghum as compared to unirrigated pearl millet. Temperature of unirrigated sorghum plants increased by 10.4°C during 22 days and it was 8.0°C higher than irrigated sorghum at day 22. Stressed pearl millet showed an increase of 3.9°C during 22 days and it was 2.9°C higher than the irrigated pearl millet at day 22. It is suggested that the heat released because of the alternative respiration activity also contributes towards temperature rise of water stressed plants.

    • Dynamics of oogenesis in the tropical anuranRana tigrina (Amphibia: Ranidae) with special reference to vitellogenic cycles in wild-caught and captive flogs

      B Hoque S K Saidapur

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      The ovarian cycle ofRana tigrina was analysed by quantifying the developing oocytes (classified into stages on the basis of diameter) and atretic ones at monthly intervals. Stages I to IV represent oocytes in the first growth phase and the remaining ones the vitellogenic or second growth phase. Stages I–III occurred year round but exhibited significant variation in their number. The number of stage II oocytes always dominated the other stages. Recruitment of oocytes to stages IV and V in April marked the initiation of vitellogenic growth in all specimens. Of the 30 to 35% second growth phase oocytes, 25 to 28% reached ovulatory sizes by June. After spawning the ovarian mass declined drastically from 15 to 0.2% of body mass in July. Atresia was maximal (5%) in August. In other months, it was less than 1.5% of the total oocytes. Oogenic episodes occurred in March and July yielding new oocytes.

      The number of first growth phase oocytes fluctuated from 65 to 95%. The fluctuation was inversely correlated with the second growth phase oocytes indicating a 30 to 35% annual turnover rate of oocytes in the frog. The final egg number/ovarian mass is positively correlated with the snout-vent length as well as body mass of the frogs.R. tigrina produces about 4000 eggs/100g body mass. Further, the mean number of yolky eggs/100 g body mass and the total volume (V) of eggs/frog were highly correlated.

      Frogs living in captivity produced fewer eggs compared to the wild ones (3594 ± 227 in captivevs 4704 ± 317 in wild frogs). Also, these frogs failed to breed though they showed amplexus with breeding males. Injection of desoxycorticosterone acetate however induced spawning in 4 out of 5 frogs. They released about 3000 eggs each. Captivity seems to mainly impair breeding and to a little extent the vitellogenic growth of oocytes inR. tigrina.

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