• Volume 16, Issue 3

      September 1991,   pages  97-174

    • Direct correlation between the circadian sleep-wakefulness rhythm and time estimation in humans under social and temporal isolation

      M K Chandrashekaran G Marimuthu R Subbaraj P Kumarasamy M S Ramkumar K Sripathi

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      Several bodily functions in humans vary on a 24 h pattern and most of these variations persist with a circadian period ofca 25 h when subjects are studied under conditions of social and temporal isolation. We report in this paper that the estimates of short time intervals (TE) of 2 h are strongly coupled to the circadian rhythm in sleepwakefulness. There is a linear correlation between the number of hours humans stay awake (α) and their estimation of 2 h intervals. The coupling of TE to α appears to obtain only under conditions of physical well-being.

    • Why do ladybirds (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) cannibalize?

      B K Agarwala

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      Cannibalism of eggs by larvae ofAdalia bipunctata, an aphidophagous species of ladybirds, is important for survival when aphids are scarce. Ladybirds survive longer by eating eggs of their own species rather than aphids. Since it costs less, in terms of larval growth, to eat eggs rather than aphids, cannibalism has a strong advantage under conditions of prey scarcity.

    • Kairomones ofheliothis armigera andcorcyra cephalonica and their influence on the parasitic potential oftrichogramma chilonis (Trichogrammatidae: hymenoptera)

      T N Ananthakrishnan R Senrayan S Murugesan R S Annadurai

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      Kairomones from moth scales tend to influence the parasitic potential byTrichogramma chilonis Ishii. Hexatriacontane, pentacosane, heptadecane, docosane and 2, 6, l0-dodecatrienal-3, 7, 11-trimethyl were identified from the active moth scale extract ofHeliothis armigera Hubner (its natural host) andCorcyra cephalonica Stainton (a laboratory host). The significance of an array of compounds from moth scales with kairomonal activity for manipulating entomophagous insects in biological control programmes is discussed.

    • Phosphoenolpyruvate-succinate-glyoxylate pathway in the filarial parasiteSetaria digitata

      M Mohamed Rafi R Kaleysa Raj

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      Setaria digitata, a filarial parasite of cattle possesses certain unique characteristics like cyanide insensitivity, and lack of cytochromes. In the present study, we have shown that the parasite has an incomplete tricarboxylic acid cycle with the absence of activities of isocitrate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and succinyl-CoA synthase. However the parasite showed the existence of glyoxylate cycle and phosphoenolpyruvate-succinate pathway. The widely used antifilarial drug diethylcarbamazine caused general inhibition of all enzymes of phosphoenolpyruvate-succinate pathway and glyoxylate cycle except that of fumarase and isocitrate lyase. The results may pave the way for new targets for chemotherapy in the control of filarial parasites.

    • Diketopinic acid — A novel reagent for the modification of arginine

      C S Pande D Bassi Neena Jain A Dhar J D Glass

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      Diketopinic acid has been synthesized and shown to be a reagent of choice for specific, reversible modification of the guanidine groups of arginine residues. Diketopinic acid is a yellow crystalline substance and the carboxyl group of the reagent is a convenient handle for attachment to other molecules. The adducts of diketopinoyl derivatives with the guanidine group are cleaved by 0.2 M o-phenylenediamine at pH 8–9. The modification and regeneration of arginine and of arginyl residues in soyabean trypsin inhibitor and insulin are presented as demonstrations of the use of the reagent. The use of diketopinoyl resin in the separation of oxidized A and B chains of insulin has been discussed.

    • Chloroquine delivery to erythrocytes inPlasmodium berghei-infected mice using antibody-bearing liposomes as drug vehicles

      Subhash Chandra Ajay K Agrawal C M Gupta

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      Suitability of anti-erythrocyte F(ab’)2-bearing liposomes as vehicles for chloroquine in the treatment of chloroquine resistantPlasmodium berghei infections in mice has been examined. Free chloroquine or chloroquine encapsulated in antibody-free liposomes failed to show much effect on the resistant infections, but the same doses of this drug after being encapsulated in antibody-bearing liposomes exhibited a significant inhibitory effect on this infection. These results indicate that chloroquine delivery in antibody targeted liposomes may help in the successful treatment of the chloroquine resistant malarial infections.

    • Molecular cloning, characterization and expression of a nitrofuran reductase gene ofescherichia coli

      Ajit N Kumar R Jayaraman

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      Mini-mu derivatives carrying plasmid replicons can be used to clone genesin vivo. This method was adopted to generate phasmid clones which were later screened for their ability of restore nitrofurantoin sensitivity of a nitrofuran-resistant host by eliciting nitroreductase activity. One phasmid-derived clone (pAJ101) resulted in considerable increase in nitroreductase activity when introduced into a nitrofurantoin-resistant mutant ofEscherichia coli with reduced nitroreductase activity. Subsequently, a 1.8 kb fragment obtained from pAJ101 by partial digestion with 5au3A, was subcloned into pUC18 to yield pAJ102. The nitroreductase activity attributable to pAJ102 was capable of reducing both nitrofurantoin and nitrofurazone. The polypeptides encoded by pAJ102 were identified by the minicell method. A large, well-defined band corresponding to 37 kDa and a smaller, less-defined band corresponding to 35 kDa were detected. Tnl000 mutagenesis was used to delineate the coding segment of the 1.8 kb insert of pAJ102. A 0.8 kb stretch of DNA was shown to be part of the nitroreductase gene. The gene was mapped at 19 min on theEscherichia coli linkage map.

    • Replication, maturation and physical mapping of bacteriophage MB78 genome

      Saeed A Khan S S Murty Manzoor A Zargar M Chakravorty

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      Bacteriophage MB78 is a virulent phage ofSalmonella typhimurium. The viral DNA is 42 kb in size and seems to be circularly permuted. We show that viral DNA replication is through concatemeric DNA formation which is subsequently converted into full length DNA through headful packaging. A restriction map of MB78 DNA for six restriction endonucleases e.g.BgIII,PvuII, ECORI, ClaI, SalI and SmaI has been constructed. The yield of certain fragments in less than molar amount is explained in terms of permutation and the headful mechanism of packaging. The packaging site (pac site) has been suggested.

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