• Volume 12, Issue 4

      December 1987,   pages  321-420

    • Computer simulation of the interaction of α3hclix of λ Cro protein with DNA and origin of sequence specific recognition

      Arundhati Kotwal Mrigank Anita Kalia V Kothekar

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      The conformation of the α3 helix of Cro protein (residues 27–36) of bacteriophageλ is optimised by the damped least square minimization technique, with the steric constraint that Cα atom positions should match the crystallographic data available to date. On the basis of minimization of total interaction and conformation energy, models for complexes of this peptide sequence with heptanucleotide duplexes from native and altered OR3 operator are obtained in the major groove of B DNA. Analysis of the energetics for 3 sequences of the DNA show that binding strength is derived mainly from the interaction of side chains of the peptide with DNA. Sequence specificity (maximum difference in binding energy for different DNA sequences) is due to hydrogen bonding interaction. A small amount of sequence specificity is derived from non-bonded interaction also. Stereochemical aspects of peptide DNA interaction and their role in DNA recognition are discussed in this paper.

    • Standard dimensions forcis N-methyl peptide unit and flexibility ofcis peptide units

      K Ramnarayan C Ramakrishnan

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      The mean dimensions of thecis N-methyl peptide unit have been arrived at by analysing the crystal structure data on compounds containing such units. These dimensions can be used as standard in conformational studies on cyclic peptides. While the bonds meeting at C are almost coplanar, those meeting at N show a slight pyramidal disposition. A comparison of the dimensions of the normal and N-methylatedcis peptide units show that there are perceptible differences in the parameters connected with N. In addition, the flexibility of thecis peptide unit has been analysed by studying the distribution of the parameters in different classes of compounds such as cyclic di, tri and higher peptides. The salient features are: (i) The angle CαCN in cyclic dipeptide and the angle CδNCα in higher peptides tend to be lower, when the peptide unit is associated with a prolyl residue; (ii) in cyclic tripeptides the internal anglesviz., CαCN and CNCα are significantly larger thereby increasing the intra-annular space; (iii) the bond Cα-C is distinctly shorter when it occurs in cyclic dipeptides. The results lead to the conclusion that thecis peptide unit takes up aneed-based flexibility in its dimension.

    • Isolation and characterization of cDNA clones for α- and β-subunits of ovine luteinizing hormone

      Swatantra K Jain William W Chin G P Talwar

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      A cDNA library of ovine pituitary DNA in plasmid pBR322 has been constructed by conventional methods with certain modifications. The library was screened using partial cDNAs for ratα-subunit and LHβ. We have isolated cDNA clones for ovineα-subunit and LHβ. The identification of these clones was confirmed by partial sequencing. The clones bear about 80% sequence homology with the respective rat cDNAs in the sequenced regions and hybridize with the rat clones in 5 X SSC at 55°C. The ovine LHβ clone has an insert of about 650 bp and selects an RNA of about 750 bases in a northern blot. The α-subunit cDNA clone has an insert of about 550 bp; it has two internalPst I sites and thus shows restriction-based differences from ratα-subunit cDNA, which does not have anyPst I site.

    • Biological characteristics of the peptides α and β isolated from bovine seminal plasma

      S Chari S K Mohapatra S Duraiswami

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      The bull seminal plasma peptides α andβ have been examined for their biological properties. While both the peptides were able to inhibit the human chorionic gonadotropin-dependent uterine response in the mouse, α alone exhibits the property of suppressing post-castrational rise in gonadotropin in appropriate animal models. This suggests that the peptideβ must be acting directly on the ovary to suppress estrogen production and, consequently, the uterine weight increase. Such a possibility was confirmed when α andβ were examined by the coupled bioassay which is capable of discriminating between pituitary feedback factors and those acting directly on the gonad. In a test system designed to examine chronic effects, both α andβ showed evidence of acting directly on the ovary to inhibit human menopausal gonadotropin-induced estrogen production. Such a direct action could not be correlated with the relative potencies of these peptides when examined for their follicle stimulating hormone-receptor binding inhibitor and lutinizing hormone-receptor binding inhibitor activities.

    • Induction of lipid peroxidation by oxalate in experimental rat urolithiasis

      R Selvam T Biji Kurien

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      The function of lipid peroxidation and the antiperoxidative enzymes of rat liver and kidney were studied in stone formation induced by intraperitoneal administration of sodium oxalate (7 mg/100 g body weight). The animals sacrificed 3 and 12 h after administration of sodium oxalate had higher level of malondialdehyde in liver and kidney than control animals. A significantly pronounced release of malondialdehyde was observed in treated liver and kidney homogenates when incubated with either ferrous sulphate or hydrogen peroxide compared to control liver and kidney. Superoxide dismutase activity was increased only in liver and not in kidney in treated animals compared to the control. A highly significant decrease in catalase activity was observed in both liver and kidney of treated animals.

    • Purification and characterization of tubulin from mung bean (Vigna radiata)

      Kunal Sen Debasish Raha Tapati Das B B Biswas

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      Tubulin has been purified from mung bean seedling by Zn2+-induced polymerization. Both α- and β-subunits of mung bean tubulin are different from those of brain tubulin in electrophoretic mobility, colchicine binding and peptide map. Heterogeneity of mung bean tubulin has also been documented suggesting diversification of tubulin despite its conserved nature in general.

    • Isolation and properties of a lectin from the seeds ofMimosa invisa L.

      R Chandrika M S Shaila

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      A lectin has been purified from the seeds ofMimosa invisa L. by gel filtration and preparative Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified lectin was homogeneous as judged by analytical Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, immunodiffusion and Immunoelectrophoresis. The apparent molecular weight is 100,000; the protein is a tetramer with two types of subunits (molecular weight 35,000 and 15,000). The lectin is a glycoprotein with approximately 21% carbohydrate and interacts with Sephadex and concanavalin A-Sepharose. It agglutinates erthrocytes non-specifically, does not agglutinate leucocytes and is not mitogenic, agglutinates Mimosa-nodulatingRhizobium and is a panagglutinin; the agglutination is not inhibited by several simple sugars. It is thermo-stable and has no metal ions.

    • Relation between electrokinetic potentials and growth in callus cultures ofTrigonella foenum-graecum

      S S Apte C K Kokate D Rambhau

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      Callus cultures ofTrigonella foenum-graecum were initiated from radicle or cotyledon portions of seedlings and young leaves and maintained on modified 1-B5 medium. The callus mass was disaggregated by mechanical agitation and the discrete cells thus obtained were used to measure their electrokinetic potential. Studies pertaining to the effects of ageing on electrokinetic potential and growth index revealed a relationship between these two parameters. Thus, the rate of change of electrokinotie potential with age could be employed as a parameter to study the growth kinetics of cells in callus cultures.

    • Bleaching of photosynthetic pigments inChlorella protothecoides grown in the presence of SANDOZ 9785 (4-chloro-5-dimethylamino-2-phenyl-3 (2H) pyridazinone)

      Karunyal Samuel Salil Bose

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      The unicellular green algaChlorella protothecoides was grown in the presence of various concentrations (30–300 µM) of the herbicide SANDOZ 9785 (4-chloro-5-(dimethylamino)-2-phenyl-3 (2H) pyridazinone). When the cells were grown autotrophically in the presence of the herbicide, there was a decrease in chlorophylls and carotenoids estimated on culture volume basis compared to the control. The absorption spectra of carotenes and colourless precursors extracted from photosynthetic particles showed that there was a higher carotenoid precursors/carotene ratio in the treated cells. Similarly the carotenoid precursors/xanthophyll ratio was increased by SANDOZ 9785 treatment. Chlorophylla synthesis appeared to be inhibited more than chlorophyllb synthesis in SANDOZ 9785 treated cells resulting in a decrease in the chlorophylla/b ratio.

    • A reinvestigation of inhibitors of glyoxalase I

      Subhankar Ray Manju Ray

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      It has been reported earlier that nucleotides, nucleosides and a series of structurally related compounds as well as compounds based on transition state analogy inhibit yeast glyoxalase I. In our study on the metabolic regulation of glyoxalase I, we have found that nucleotides such as ATP, GTP and different classes of other reagents based on transition state analogy (D-isoascorbate, dihydroxyfumaric acid, rhodizonic acid) do not inhibit yeast or goat liver glyoxalase I. The reported inhibition of glyoxalase I by these compounds has been found to be due to the interference of these compounds with the absorbancy at 240 nm of S-D-lactoylglutathione formed by the glyoxalase I reaction.

      Glyoxalase I from goat liver has been found to be strongly and competitively inhibited by lactaldehyde. But, lactaldehyde has very little inhibitory effect on yeast glyoxalase I. Lactaldehyde is formed from methylglyoxal, the substrate for glyoxalase I by the enzyme methylglyoxal reductase. D-Lactaldehyde inhibits the liver enzyme more strongly than L-lactaldehyde.

    • Carbohydrate metabolism in the rat peritoneal macrophages

      S K Bansal

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      Rat peritoneal macrophages derive energy differently from other tissues. Resting rat peritoneal macrophages have been taken for the present investigation. Lactate produced by extracellular glycolysis in the peritoneal lavage fluid, is readily converted into pyruvate by resting peritoneal macrophages and is oxidised in mitochondria. Glycolytic enzymes other than phosphoglucoisomerase and lactate dehydrogenase could not be substantially demonstrated. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was detected. The presence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase along with phosphoglucoisomerase indicates the operation of the hexose monophosphate shunt as a pathway supplementary to glycolysis. Resting rat peritoneal macrophages thus appear to utilize extracellular lactate as their main energy source instead of glucose, bypass glycolysis and have active hexose monophosphate shunt.

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