• Volume 10, Issue 4

      December 1986,   pages  423-493

    • Plasma levels of gonadotropin releasing hormone during menstrual cycle ofMacaca radiata

      N Mathialagan A Jagannadha Rao

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      A sensitive radioimmunoassay for gonadotropin releasing hormone has been developed. The assay has been validated for its specificity by testing various analogues of gonadotropin releasing hormone. Analysis of plasma samples during the menstrual cycle of 4 female bonnet monkeys showed a significant increase in the immunoreactive gonadotropin releasing hormone levels during preovulatory period of the menstrual cycle.

    • Gonadotropin releasing hormone in first trimester human placenta: Isolation, partial characterisation andin vitro biosynthesis

      N Mathialagan A Jagannadha Rao

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      Using a specific radioimmunoassay for gonadotropin releasing hormone, the presence of gonadotropin releasing hormone like material in the first trimester human placenta has been demonstrated. The material has been partially characterized using carboxy methyl cellulose chromatography, high pressure gel permeation chromatography and reverse phase C18 high pressure liquid chromatographic analysis. Analysis for bioactivity revealed that placental gonadotropin releasing hormone is much more active than synthetic gonadotropin releasing hormone inin vitro rat pituitary lutinising hormone release assay.In vitro biosynthetic studies using labelled precursors and immunoaffinity chromatography indicated that first trimester human placenta synthesizes gonadotropin releasing hormone like material.

    • Circadian and circannual changes in the testicular function of adult rhesus monkeys

      Atam Sehgal G F X David A K Dubey J S Pruthi T C Anand Kumar

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      The endocrine and gametogenic status of the testes were studied in 9 healthy adult rhesus monkeys of proven fertility throughout a one-year period. Testosterone levels were estimated by radioimmunoassay in blood samples collected at 4 h intervals over a 24 h period once a month. Semen samples and testicular biopsies were also examined once a month. A well-defined circandian rhythm was evident in serum levels of testosterone. The rhythmicity was less pronounced in February and September. The 24 h mean levels of serum testosterone were high between the months of August to March and low in the months of May to July. All animals did not uniformly respond to electro-ejaculation in April and May. Semen volume and total number of spermatozoa were maximal between September and March and least from April to August. Testicular biopsies indicated that all stages of spermatogenesis were evident between September and March and the spermatogenic activity was less evident between April and August. The contents of Sertoli cells showed a seasonal cyclicity; they were laden with lipid droplets during April to August when spermatogenesis was quiescent and vacuolated during September to March when spermatogenesis was active. These studies indicate that the testing of contraceptive drugs needs to be restricted to months of September to March in male rhesus monkeys otherwise, it is possible that the naturally occurring reproductive quiscence may be attributed to the effect of the drug being tested. The data accrued from the present studies also provide quantitative information on circulating levels of testosterone which could be used as a reference background while evaluating the contraceptive drug-effects in male rhesus monkeys.

    • Effect of oral exposure ofMycobacterium avium intracellular on the protective immunity induced by BCG

      Sujatha Narayanan C N Paramasivan R Prabhakar P R Narayanan

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      The relative protective efficacy of oral administration of mycobacteria as compared to the conventional intradermal route of vaccination has been assessed in guinea pigs. Skin test reactivity to partially purified protein derivative and protective immunity to challenge with virulentMycobacterium tuberculosis were used as parameters of protective immunity.

      Oral immunisation of guinea pigs either with BCG or withMycobacterium avium intracellulare induces skin test reactivity and protective immunity comparable to that induced by intradermal route of vaccination. Oral exposure ofMycobacterium avium intracellulare prior to oral or intradermal dose of BCG did not interfere with the protective immunity induced by BCG in guinea pigs challenged withMycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv.

    • Diagnostic utility of monoclonal antibodies raised against microfilarial excretory-secretory antigens in bancroftian filariasis

      M V R Reddy P Rama Prasad W F Piessens B C Harinath

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      Two monoclonal antibodiesWuchereria bancrofti E 33 andWuchereria bancrofli E 34 raised againstWuchereria bancrofti microfilarial excretory-secretory antigens were studied for their diagnostic utility.Wuchereria bancrofti E 34 monoclonal antibody was found to be relatively specific and sensitive in detection of circulating filarial antigen. WhenWuchereria bancrofti E 34 monoclonal antibody was used alongwith immunoglobulin G fraction of human filarial serum immunoglobulins in double antibody sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. 68% of microfilaraemic sera (26 out of 38). 12% of clinical filarial sera (3 out of 25), 13% endemic normal sera (2 out of 15) and none of the 20 non-endemic normal sera showed the presence of filarial antigen. The filarial antigen detected byWuchereria bancrofti E 34 monoclonal antibody in double antibody sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay is possibly associated with the active stage (microfilaraemia) of infection.

    • Biochemical changes in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) leaves in relation to resistance against sterility mosaic disease

      Y P S Rathi Anadi Bhatt U S Singh

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      Changes in different biochemical parameters like total phenolic content, protein pattern, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase and isozymes of peroxidase were compared in sterility mosaic resistant (Hy3C) and susceptible (Type-21) pigeonpea varieties at different growth stages both under inoculated and uninoculated conditions. Resistant variety was characterized by the presence of specific isoperoxidase and proteins but only little difference was recorded between resistant and susceptible variety with respect to preformed or induced total phenolics and peroxidase activity. The activity of polyphenol oxidase increased substantially in susceptible variety following infection. Role of these changes is discussed in relation to disease resistance.

    • An indirect haemagglutination test to detect serum antibodies toGiardia lamblia

      K N Jalan Tusher Maitra Rita Das

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      We used an indirect haemagglutination test withGiardia lamblia trophozoites as the antigen to detectanti-Giardia lamblia antibodies in serum, the soluble tritonatedGiardia lamblia antigen being used for detecting anti-giardial antibodies in sera of 60 human subjects. Titers in some of these subjects were 1 : 80-1 : 2560. whereas titers in some subjects were negative button to 1 : 20. The results indicated thatGiardia lamblia, an intestinal parasite, induced a systemic antibody response and the indirect haemagglu tination test foranti-Giardia lamblia antibodies is a simple specific and reproducible system which may be useful in epidemiologic and immunologic studies of giardiasis. The specificity of the anti-bodies was demonstrated by the ability of liveGiardia lamblia trophozoites, but not Entamoeba histolytica to absorb the antibody activity.

    • Cloning of Y derived DNA sequences of bovine origin inEscherichia coli

      Pramod Khandekar G P Talwar Renu Chaudhury

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      We have constructed a partial library of Y chromosome derived DNA sequences of bovine origin inEscherichia coli. That, the recombinants arc Y derived and Y specific was ascertained by differential colony hybridization using male and female DNA probes. Out of 1000 recombinants analysed, 17 were found to be Y derived as well as Y specific and were of repetitive nature. Restriction analysis revealed that most of them had short DNA inserts.

    • Effect of magnesium deficiency on the metabolism of glycosamino-glycans in rats

      P Jaya P A Kurup

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      Magnesium deficiency in rats has significant effect on the concentration of different glycosaminoglycans in the tissues, the nature of the change being different in different tissues. Total glycosaminoglycans, chondroitin-4-sulphate + chondroitin-6-sulphate and dermatan sulphate increased in the aorta while hyaluronic acid, heparan sulphate and heparin decreased. In the liver, total glycosaminoglycans, hyaluronic acid, chondroitin-4-sulphate + 6-sulphate and heparin decreased while total glycosamino-glycans and all the glycosaminoglycan fractions increased in the heart. In the kidney, total glycosaminoglycans showed no significant alteration, hyaluronic acid and heparin decreased while chondroitin-4-sulphate + 6-sulphate increased. Activity of biosynthetic enzymesviz. glucosamine-o-phosphate isomerase and UDPG-dehydrogenase showed decrease in the liver. The concentration of 3’-phosphoadenosine 5’-phosphosulphate, activity of sulphate activating system and sulphotransferase were also similarly altered in the liver in magnesium deficiency.

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