• Volume 10, Issue 2

      June 1986,   pages  171-281

    • Lipoic acid and diabetes—Part III: Metabolic role of acetyl dihydrolipoic acid

      S S Wagh V M Gandhi C V Natraj K K G Menon

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      Rat liver lipoyl transacetylase catalyzes the formation of acetyl dihydrolipoic acid from acetyl coenzyme A and dihydrolipoic acid. In an earlier paper the formation of acetyl dihydrolipoic from pyruvate and dihydrolipoic acid catalyzed by pyruvate dehydrogenase has been reported. Acetyl dihydrolipoic acid is a substrate for citrate synthase, acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase. The Vmax. for citrate synthase with acetyl dihydrolipoic acid was identical to acetyl coenzyme A (approximately 1 μmol citrate formed/min/mg protein) while the apparent Km was approximately 4 times higher with acetyl dihydrolipoic acid as the substrate. This may be due to the fact that synthetic acetyl dihydrolipoic acid is a mixture of 4 possible isomers and only one of them may be the substrate for the enzymatic reaction. While dihydrolipoic acid can replace coenzyme A in the activation of succinate catalyzed by succinyl coenzyme A synthetase, the transfer of coenzyme A between succinate and acetoacetyl dihydrolipoic acid catalyzed by succinyl coenzyme A: 3 oxo-acid coenzyme A transferase does not occur.

    • Fermentation pattern ofZymomonas mobilis strains on different substrates—a comparative study

      P Gunasekaran T Karunakaran M Kasthuribai

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      The optimum conditions (pH and initial sugar concentration) of fermentation for the production of ethanol by 4 strains ofZymomonas mobilis (ATCC 10988, ATCC 12526, NRRL B 4286 and IFO 13756) were studied. An initial sugar concentration of 15 % (w/v) at pH 7.0 was found to be optimal for the first two strains and 20 % (w/v) initial sugar at pH 7.0 was found to be optimal for the last two strains. The fermentation pattern of these strains on synthetic medium, cane juice and molasses were compared. Strain NRRL B 4286 showed maximum ethanol production on synthetic medium while on cane juice ATCC 10988 and ATCC 12526 performed well. However, all the strains fermented molasses poorly.

    • Carbon starvation mediated changes in carbohydrate metabolism inNeurospora crassa

      Meenoti Sonavaria B G Nair H S Chhatpar

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      Carbon starvation conditions were found to increase the activities of gluconeogenic enzymes such as malic enzyme, cytosolic malate dehydrogenase and isocitrate lyase along with proteases and inhibition in glucose catabolic enzymes such as G6P dehydrogenase and FDP aldolase inNeurospora crassa

    • Correlation between riboflavin carrier protein induction and its mRNA activity in estrogen stimulated chicken liver and oviduct

      B Durga Kumari P R Adiga

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      Poly A enriched RNA from either liver or oviduct of estradiol-17β treated immature chicks supported [3H]-leucine incorporation into immunoprecipitable riboflavin carrier protein in a dose-dependent manner when translated in the rabbit reticulocyte lysate system. Primary translation product of riboflavin carrier protein had a molecular weight of 38,000 which on incubation with a stripped hepatic microsomal preparation was processed to a product with a size comparable to native riboflavin carrier protein. Poly A enriched RNA from both the liver and the oviduct of estrogen-treated birds stimulated [3H]-leucine incorporation into riboflavin carrier protein and this was 2–3 fold higher during secondary stimulationvis-a-vis primary stimulation with the steroid. Poly A enriched RNA from the liver of progesteronetreated birds during secondary stimulation did not support riboflavin carrier protein synthesis. In contrast, poly A enriched RNA from the oviduct of the birds treated with progesterone during secondary (but not primary) stimulation did exhibit riboflavin carrier protein-mRNA activity which was comparable to that stimulated by estradiol-17β

    • Decarboxylation of arginine and ornithine by arginine decarboxylase purified from cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings

      G L Prasad P R Adiga

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      A purified preparation of arginine decarboxylase fromCucumis sativus seedlings displayed ornithine decarboxylase activity as well. The two decarboxylase activities associated with the single protein responded differentially to agmatine, putrescine andPi. While agmatine was inhibitory (50 %) to arginine decarboxylase activity, ornithine decarboxylase activity was stimulated by about 3-fold by the guanido arnine. Agmatine-stimulation of ornithine decarboxylase activity was only observed at higher concentrations of the amine. Inorganic phosphate enhanced arginine decarboxylase activity (2-fold) but ornithine decarboxylase activity was largely uninfluenced. Although both arginine and ornithine decarboxylase activities were inhibited by putrescine, ornithine decarboxylase activity was profoundly curtailed even at 1 mM concentration of the diamine. The enzyme-activated irreversible inhibitor for mammalian ornithine decarboxylase,viz. α-difluoromethyl ornithine, dramatically enhanced arginine decarboxylase activity (3–4 fold), whereas ornithine decarboxylase activity was partially (50%) inhibited by this inhibitor. At substrate level concentrations, the decarboxylation of arginine was not influenced by ornithine andvice-versa. Preliminary evidence for the existence of a specific inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase activity in the crude extracts of the plant is presented. The above results suggest that these two amino acids could be decarboxylated at two different catalytic sites on a single protein.

    • The binding requirements of monkey brain lysosomal enzymes to their immobilised receptor protein

      Keith Alvares K Panneerselvam A S Balasubramanian

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      The lysosomal enzyme binding protein (receptor protein) isolated from monkey brain was immobilised on Sepharose 4B and used to study the binding of brain lysosomal enzymes. The immobilised protein could bind \-D-glucosaminidase, α-D-mannosidase, α-L-fucosidase and²-D-glucuronidase. The bound enzymes could be eluted either at an acid pH of 4.5 or by mannose 6-phosphate but not by a number of other sugars tested. Binding could be abolished by prior treatment of the lysosomal enzymes with sodium periodate. Alkaline phosphatase treatment of the enzymes did not prevent the binding of the lysosomal enzymes to the column but decreased their affinity, as seen by a shift in their elution profile, when a gradient elution with mannose 6-phosphate was employed. These results suggested that an ‘uncovered’ phosphate on the carbohydrate moiety of the enzymes was not essential for binding but can enhance the binding affinity.

    • Effect of mandur bhasma on lipolytic activities of liver, kidney and adipose tissue of albino rat during CCl4 induced hepatic injury

      Pratibha Devarshi Aruna Kanase Ravindra Kanase Sadashiv Mane Subhash Patil A T Varute

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      ‘Mandur bhasma’, an ayurvedic preparation of iron is used in traditional medicine against hepatitis. In the present study the hepatoprotective property of this drug was tested in albino rats during CC14 induced hepatic injury. The effect of mandur bhasma on the activities of the lipolytic enzymes of rat liver, kidney and adipose tissue were studied during hepatitis induced by CCl4. The activities of acid lipase, alkaline lipase, lipoprotein lipase and hormone sensitive lipase exhibited significant alterations during CCl4 induced hepatic injury, indicating a role for these enzymes in the mobilization of fat from adipose tissue and accumulation of fat in liver and kidney. Simultaneous treatment with mandur bhasma prevented the paraffin mediated and CC14 mediated changes in the enzyme activities. These results suggest the hepatoprotective role of mandur bhasma during CCl4 induced hepatic injury.

    • Cross reactivity and enzyme sensitivity of immunoaffinity purified Sm/RNP antigens

      Ashok Kumar Rashid Ali

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      Immunoaffinity purified Sm/RNP antigens from buffalo and goat liver were studied to determine the role of RNA and proteins towards the antigenicity of Sm and RNP antigens. A more direct approach using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on nylon beads has been utilized to look into the problem. The effect of enzyme treatment and the role of RNA and protein fractions in influencing antigenicity have been described. RNA seems to be involved in the maintenance of RNP specific polypeptides in suitable conformation so as to keep them in solution. Removal of RNA leads to insolubilization of RNP specific polypeptides. Antibodies to Sm and RNP antigens have been shown to cross react with poly A containing heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein with no cross reactivity with thymus RNA or DNA.

    • Effects of piretanide on plasma fibrinolytic activity, platelet aggregation and platelet factor-4 release in man

      I S Chohan

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      Piretanide, 4-phenoxy-3-(pyrrolidinyl)-5-sulphamoyl benzoic acid, apart from being an efficient diuretic, enhances endogenous plasma fibrinolytic activity after a single dose of 6 mg administered by oral route. After ingestion of the drug, acceleration of fibrinolytic acitivity became manifest within 1 h, reached its peak in 3 h and was associated with a fall in fibrinogen and diminished urokinase excretion. Piretanide did not cause lysis of fibrinin vitro. Primary platelet aggregation, induced by adenosine-diphosphate, was inhibited by piretanide. Inin vitro experiments piretanide led to effective inhibition of adenosine-diphosphate-induced platelet aggregation with complete inhibition at 5 mM concentration. Piretanide led to a highly significant decrease of platelet factor-4 release.

    • Prevention of aortic lesions and hyperlipidaemia by alfalfa seed extract in cholesterol fed rabbit

      V P Dixit S C Joshi Prabha Jain

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      Extract of alfalfa seed (ethanolic 50 % v/v) prevents the development of plaque formation and hyperlipidaemia in cholesterol fed rabbits. It inhibits the elevation of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, LDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol/phospholipid ratio, while HDL-cholesterol/total cholesterol ratio increases, which is associated with a reduced incidence of atherosclerosis. Further reduction in total cholesterol and phospholipid contents of liver and heart muscle are suggestive of a beneficial role of the seed extract. The possible mechanisms of action are discussed.

    • Purification and characterization of proteolytic enzymes from normal and opaque-2Zea mays L. developing endosperms

      P C Ram K N Srivastava M L Lodha S L Mehta

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      Purification and characterization of proteases from developing normal maize endosperm and high lysine opaque-2 maize endosperm have been carried out with a view to understand their role in storage protein modification. At day 15, normal maize endosperm had two types of proteolytic enzymes, namely, protease I and protease II, while at day 25 protease n disappeared and in place protease III appeared. However, in opaque-2 maize endosperm at both the stages only one type of enzyme (protease I) was present. These proteases had many properties in common-optimum pH and temperature were respectively, 5.7and 40°C; their activity was inhibited to the extent of 75 –93 % by p-chloromercuribenzoate; trypsin inhibitor inhibited the activity more at early stages of endosperm development; all proteases cleaved synthetic substrates p-tosyl-L-arginine methylesler and N-benzoyl-L-tyrosine ethyl ester and poly-L-glutamic acid. TheKm values of day 15 and 25 normal maize endosperm proteases ranged from 2.73–3.30, while for opaque-2 maize endosperm protease I it was 3.33 mg azocasein per ml assay medium. These enzymes, however, differed with respect to proteolytic activity towards poly-L-lysine. Only normal maize endosperm protease III at day 25 followed by protease II at day 15 showed high activity towards this homopolypeptide suggesting thereby their role in determining the quality of normal maize endosperm protein.

    • Ammonium ions prevent methylation of uridine to ribothymidine inAzotobacter vinelandii tRNA

      P Ajitkumar Joseph D Cherayil

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      It was shown that tRNA fromAzotobacter vinelandii grown in the presence of ammonium chloride lacks ribothymidine while that grown in the absence of the ammonium salt contains this modified nucleoside. [32P]-Labelled tRNA from this organism grown in a medium containing the ammonium salt was digested with RNase T1 and the pseudouridinecontaining tetranucleotide, common to all tRNAs was isolated and analysed for the nucleoside replacing the ribothymidine. It was found to be uridine. Cells previously labelled with [32P]-phosphate in the ammonium salt medium were washed and incubated in the ammonium saltfree medium to test whether ribothymidine would be formed upon removal of the ammonium ions. Methylation of the uridine did not take place.

    • Expression ofMycobacterium tuberculosis genes inEscherichia coli

      Sudha Bhattacharya Satishn Ranadive Alok Bhattacharya

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      TwoEscherichia coli clones expressingMycobacterium tuberculosis antigens were isolated from a gene-bank in the plasmid vector pBR 325. ‘Western blot’ analysis revealed the presence of a unique protein band of molecular weight 68,000 and 38,000, respectively in cellextracts from each clone. The 68,000 dalton antigen was found to be expressed onEscherichia coli outer surface. Plasmid DNA from a third clone could confer leucine independence on two differentleu B mutants ofEscherichia coli but not on mutants in otherleu genes, pointing to the possibility ofgenetic complementation. Thus,Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA is capable of expression inEscherichia coli.

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