• Volume 9, Issue 1-2

      September 1985,   pages  1-127

    • Purification and properties of proteases produced byalternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissl, regulation of production by fructose

      M Patil N V Shastri

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      A strain ofAlternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissl, when grown on wheat bran Czapek Dox medium was found to secrete one neutral and two alkaline proteases. The purified enzymes were found to be endo peptidases, the alkaline proteases being serine proteases and neutral proteases being cysteine proteases. Fructose when added to the culture medium was found to give rise to a new neutral protease at the expense of the neutral protease produced in the absence of fructose and was also found to enhance the production of alkaline proteases. It also appears that fructose modifies the alkaline proteases with respect to some characteristics such asVmax, Ea etc. Sodium dodecyl sulphate Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated a significantly altered protein profile in fructose supplemented medium.

    • Transfer RNA methylases and carcinogenesis

      S K Jagtiani L M Narurkar M V Narurkar

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      An increased tRNA methylase activity (100 %) accompanied by a 40 % decrease in the regulatory glycine methyltransferase activity was demonstrated in livers of mice fed on the carcinogenic (thioacetamide) diet, long before the onset of malignant transformation. Shortterm treatment with thioacetamide and phenobarbital independently, also brought about a significant increase in the rat liver tRNA methylase activity. A significant increase in the tRNA methylase activity was observed in the mammary glands of pregnant as well as lactating mice as against the negligible enzyme activity in the normal mammary glands of C3H and CBA mice, whereas a large increase in the tRNA methylase activity was evident in the spontaneously induced mammary tumours in these strains. Hepatic tRNA methylase activity was shown to remain unaffected in rats during various physiological stress conditions. It is suggested that elevation in the tRNA methylase activity may be one of the prerequisites during malignant transformation. A considerable increase in the tRNA methylase activity in host tissues of the tumour-bearing mice was also demonstrated

    • Effects of protein deficiency on selective elicitation of lysosomal enzymes in rat peritoneal macrophages

      U R Iyengar U K Vakil

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      Young albino rats were fedad libitum 4, 8 or 20 % (control) protein diet for 1–4 weeks. Total activities of some of the lysosomal enzymes, namely, acid phosphatase, aryl sulphatase, Β-glucuronidase and cathepsin D, were determined in resident and protease-peptone elicited peritoneal macrophages. Total cell number, protein content and the lysosomal enzyme activities were increased significantly in protease-peptone elicited macrophages; though at a lower rate in 4 % protein-fed group compared to control ones. However, the rate of induction of the tested hydrolases was selective and their response to the stimulant varied widely. Similarly, response of each enzyme to low protein diet also varied. Thus, at 4 weeks, cathepsin D and Β-glucuronidase activities, expressed per total number of elicited macrophages were reduced by 45 and 60 %, respectively, in 4 % protein-fed animals. These results indicate that the metabolic events related to lysosomal function in macrophages, are affected by dietary restriction of proteins

    • Changes in the subcellular distribution of brain and heart hexokinase isoenzymes during alloxan diabetes

      Gurcharan Kaur Rameshwar Singh Najma Zaheer Baquer

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      Changes in the subcellular distribution of hexokinase activity from three brain regions and heart were studied during alloxan induced diabetes. There was an overall decrease in the particulate hexokinase with an increase in the soluble form, after different time intervals of the onset of diabetes. Administration of insulin to the diabetic rats showed a partial counteraction of the enzyme changes. A possible regulation of brain hexokinase by metabolite changes is proposed

    • Rapid calorie metering inad lib rats

      E Prabhakar B S Rao

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      Adult wistar rats of either sex housed in individual cages and fedad lib were used to investigate the effects of calorie content and taste on ingestion. A 15 min single-choice solution (water, quinine, sucrose, saccharin) test as well as 1 h mixed diet (stock diet, sucrose-mixed, saccharin-mixed, quinine-mixed) tests were used. Calorically-rich sucrose either in solution or in mixed-diet was preferentially ingested. Tasteper se has not influenced calorie intake, as intake on sweet saccharin (3.4 ±0.4 cal) or on bitter quinine (3.3 ±0.6 cal) was similar to intake on stock diet (4.8 ±0.8 cal). Increased 5 min intake on sucrose solution (4.6 ±0.1 ml) over intake of other test solutions (saccharin 3.5 ±0.2 ml, quinine, 1.2 ±0.3 ml, water 2.1 ±0.1 ml) and calorie intake suppression on 1 h stock diet immediately following sucrose solution intake, indicate rapid calorie metering, probably based on fast-acting specific gustatory signals

    • Evaluation of mutagenicity of the antitubercular naphthylglycine hydrazides insalmonella typhimurium

      B Ramamurthy S B Pai T Ramakrishnan

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      N-(2-naphthyl)glycine hydrazide and N-methyl-N-(2-naphthyl) glycine hydrazide, which inhibitMycobacterium tuberculosis H37 RV and show activity against experimental tuberculosis, were evaluated for their mutagenic potential inSalmonella typhimurium. Both the compounds at concentration ranges from 0.1 Μgplate to 1000 Μg/plate failed to induce mutations at the histidine locus either directly or after treatment with rat liver homogenate fraction-“S-9”. N-(2-naphthyl)glycine hydrazide and its N-methyl derivative elicited toxicity at concentrations of 500 Μg/plate and 1000 Μg/plate. However, in the presence of the liver homogenate system, reduction in toxicity was noticed probably due to detoxification and/ or conjugation of the compounds. Under the assay conditions employed, standard mutagens like 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide, 9-aminoacridine and benzo(a)pyrene were positive. The non-mutagenic nature of N-(2-naphthyl)glycine hydrazide and N-methyl-N-(2-naphthyl)glycine hydrazide should enhance their potential for inclusion in treatment protocols for management of tuberculosis

    • Effects of serpasil on lipids, lipoprotein lipase and lipogenic enzymes in alloxan diabetic rats

      Sarah Varghese K Saraswathy Devi

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      Diabetes intensifies the development of atherosclerosis. Treatment with antihypertensive drug, serpasil, arrested the progression of atherosclerosis in alloxan diabetic rats by significantly decreasing the concentration of cholesterol, phospholipids and triglycerides of serum, liver, kidney and aorta. Serpasil also decreased fasting blood sugar and urine sugar levels in these rats. Serpasil administration remarkably altered the deranged lipid metabolism in alloxan diabetic rats by nearly restoring the lipolytic and lipogenic enzyme activity to that of the normal

    • Uridine 5′-diphosphate glucose 4-epimerase from ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells

      Samir Kumar Dutta Manju Ray Amar Bhaduri

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      Uridine 5′-diphosphate glucose 4-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.2) from Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells was purified to apparent homogeneity using conventional procedures and NAD-hexane-agarose affinity chromatography. The protein had a molecular weight of 96,000. The ascites enzyme had an absolute requirement for exogenously added NAD (10 ΜM) for stability. This appears to be a unique feature of ascites epimerase since epimerase from other mammalian sources did not exhibit such a dependence. Exogenously added NAD was also needed for catalysis with an apparentKm value of 2.5 ΜM. NADH was a very potent competitive inhibitor (Ki = 0.11 ΜM with respect to NAD) of the enzyme activity at pH values close to intracellular pH. The dependence of the enzyme on NAD for stability and its inhibition by NADH may have some potential significance in tumor metabolism

    • Biochemical analysis of galactose induced bacteriostasis ingalT mutants ofescherichia coli K 12

      N Raut A Bhaduri

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      Escherichia coli mutants completely defective in galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase (EC 2.7.7.10) and growing in glycerol medium undergo rapid cessation of growth when exposed to galactose. Toxicity due to galactose is equally pronounced when glycerol is replaced by other carbon sources, like succinate and proline. Gas chromatographic analysis failed to detect even trace amounts of galactitol. Moreover, galactose-1-phosphate had no inhibitory role on some of the critical enzymes of cellular metabolism. General loss of energy (ATP) due to futile phosphorylation of galactose is probably the cause of bacteriostasis. ThegalT mutants can serve as models of human transferaseless galactosemia only to a limited extent

    • Product stabilization of the two forms of carboxypeptidase A from buffalo pancreas

      Mira Sud R D Dua

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      The two forms of buffalo carboxypeptidase A lose a part of their activity when incubated at their optimal temperature. Both the forms are protected from heat denaturation by L-phenylalanine, one of the reaction products while the other reaction product hippuric acid provides only limited protection. It has also been shown that L-phenylalanine and hippuric acid bind at the same site of the enzyme and that the release of L-phenylalanine follows that of hippuric acid. On this basis, a new mechanism for the hydrolysis of acyldipeptides by carboxypeptidase A has been proposed

    • Mechanistic studies on carboxypeptidase a from goat pancreas — part II: Evidence for carboxyl group

      R D Dua Kamlesh Gupta

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      Studies with substrate analogues and the pH optimum indicated the involvement of carboxyl group in the active site of goat carboxypeptidase A. Chemical modification of the enzyme with 1-cyclohexyl-3-(2-morpholinoethyl) carbodiimide methoI -p-toluene sulphonate, a carboxyl specific reagent, led to loss of both esterase and peptidase activities. Protection studies showed that this carboxyl group was in the active site and was protected by Βp-phenylpropionic acid and glycyl-L-tyrosine. Kinetic studies also confirmed the involvement of carboxylic group because the enzyme modification with water soluble carbodiimide was a two step reaction which excluded the possibility of tyrosine or lysine which are known to give a one step reaction with this reagent

    • Effect of cupric-isonicotinic acid hydrazide complex on avian myeloblastosis virus reverse transcriptase and its associated enzyme activities

      M B Vasudevachari A Antony

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      Cupric complex of isonicotinic acid hydrazide inhibits DNA synthesis by avian myloblastosis virus reverse transcriptase. This inhibition occurs in the presence of either ribonucleotide or deoxyribonucleotide templates. The inhibition of reverse transcriptase by cupric-INH complex is considerably reduced when stored or proteolytically cleaved enzyme was used in the reaction. The complex also inhibits the reverse transciptase-associated RNase H activity. The cupric-isonicotinic acid hydrazide complex cleaves pBR 322 from I DNA into smaller molecules in the presence or absence of reverse transcriptase-associated endonuclease. However, in the presence of the enzyme the DNA is cleaved to a greater extent

    • α-galactosidase from germinating guar (Cyamopsis tetragonolobus) seeds

      B D Shivanna M Ramakrishna

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      The changes in α-galactosidase activity in guar (Cyamopsis tetragonolobus) seeds was followed during seven days of germination. The enzyme activity was maximal on the first day of germination and gradually decreased during subsequent days. On the second day of germination the partially purified enzyme upon ion-exchange chromatography on CM-Sephadex C-50 was resolved into α-galactosidase-A (anionic), α-galactosidase-C1 (cationic) and α-galactosidase-C2 (cationic) and their relative proportions were 28,12 and 60%, respectively. The combined α-galactosidase C1 and C2 activities increased in the first two days of germination followed by significant decrease after the 3rd day onwards, whereas α-galactosidase-A remained fairly constant throughout the germination period, α-Galactosidase-A and C2 had differentKm and Vmax values withp-nitrophenyl α-D-galactopyranoside, raffinose and melibiose as substrates and also differed in their thermal stabilities

    • Lipoic acid and diabetes II: Mode of action of lipoic acid

      V M Gandhi S S Wagh C V Natraj K K G Menon

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      Intraperitoneal administration of lipoic acid (10 mg/100 g) does not effect changes in serum insulin levels in normal and alloxan diabetic rats, while normalising increased serum pyruvate, and impaired liver pyruvic dehydrogenase characteristic of the diabetic state. Dihydrolipoic acid has been shown to participate in activation of fatty acids with equal facility as coenzyme A. Fatty acyl dihydrolipoic acid however is sparsely thiolyzed to yield acetyl dihydrolipoic acid. Also acetyl dihydrolipoic acid does not activate pyruvate carboxylase unlike acetyl coenzyme A. The reduced thiolysis of Β-keto fatty acyl dihydrolipoic acid esters and the lack of activation of pyruvic carboxylase by acetyl dihydrolipoic acid could account for the antiketotic and antigluconeogenic effects of lipoic acid

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