• Volume 5, Issue 3

      September 1983,   pages  183-278

    • Evolutionary relationship of alfalfa mosaic virus with cucumber mosaic virus and brome mosaic virus

      H S Savithri M R N Murthy

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      The amino acid sequences of the non-structural protein (molecular weight 35,000; 3a protein) from three plant viruses — cucumber mosaic, brome mosaic and alfalfa mosaic have been systematically compared using the partial genomic sequences for these three viruses already available. The 3a protein of cucumber mosaic virus has an amino acid sequence homology of 33.7% with the corresponding protein of brome mosaic virus. A similar protein from alfalfa mosaic virus has a homology of 18.2% and 14.2% with the protein from brome mosaic virus and cucumber mosaic virus, respectively. These results suggest that the three plant viruses are evolutionarily related, although, the evolutionary distance between alfalfa mosaic virus and cucumber mosaic virus or brome mosaic virus is much larger than the corresponding distance between the latter two viruses.

    • Analysis of alphavirus polypeptides by two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

      Satish Deshmane Kalyan Banerjee

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      Semliki Forest, Sindbis and Chikungunya viruses were grown and radio-labeled with [3H]-amino acids in Vero cells. Analysis of virus infected cell lysates by two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis resulted in detection of polypeptides of molecular, weights corresponding to those of E1, P62, ns60, ns70/72 for Semliki Forest virus, the C, E1, 6K, 14K, PE2, P97, ns60, ns82 for Sindbis virus and E1. P62, P97, ns70/72 for Chikungunya virus. Charge and molecular weight heterogeneity in the precursor polypeptide P62 of Semliki Forest virus was detected. Structural poly-peptides e.g. E1 and E2 of Semliki Forest virus and C, E1, E2 of Sindbis virus and E1 of Chikungunya virus were detected when purified radiolabeled virus preparations were analyzed by two dimensional polyacrylamide gel-electrophoresis. Membrane glycoprotein E1 and E2 of Semliki Forest and E1 of Sindbis and Chikungunya viruses exhibited charge heterogeneity. In contrast to the marked difference in isoelectric points of E1 and E2 of Sindbis virus; E1 and E2 of Semliki Forest virus had almost identical isoelectric points.

    • Colchicine binding activity of rat brain polysomes

      S Chakrabarty K Sen B Bhattacharyya B B Biswas

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      In this communication, we report the presence of a unique colchicine-binding activity in the polysomes of rat brain. This drug-binding property, is somewhat similar to that of tubulin isolated from many sources; however, it differs in several bio-chemical characteristics such as (i) thermal stability of colchicine-binding site, (ii) protection of binding site by vinblastine and (iii) time required for binding equilibration. Such binding of colchicine to the polysomes is most probably due to the presence of a nascent peptide chain of tubulin in the polysome.

    • Effect of denaturants on the 11S protein of guar seed (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba)

      J P Nath M S Narasinga Rao

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      The effect of sodium dodecyl sulphate, urea or guanidinium hydrochloride on the sedimentation velocity, viscosity, ultra violet spectra and fluorescence spectra of the 11S protein of guar seed has been determined. Sodium dodecyl sulphate dissociates the protein directly to the 2S protein, whereas urea or guanidinium hydrochloride produces an intermediate 7S protein. These reagents denature the protein also. Both the dissociative and the denaturation effect follow the order, sodium dodecyl sulphate > guanidinium hydrochloride > urea when the concentration are expressed as mols per litre. The denatured states in the three cases probably differ.

    • Proteases in germinating finger millet (Eleusine coracana) seeds

      U Vidyavathi B Shivaraj T N Pattabiraman

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      Proteolytic activity was estimated in germinated finger millet seedlings using the endogenous trypsin/amylase inhibitor as substrate and also with haemoglobin and albumin as substrates. The maximal proteolytic activity was observed on the third day of germination. With the inhibitor as substrate, the proteolytic activity was maximal at pH 2.5. The protease that acted on the inhibitor required sulphydryl groups for maximal activity and was suppressed by diazoacetyl norleucine methyl ester and Pepstatin. The protease that acted on haemoglobin with optimum pH of 5.0, was more stable on storage, did not depend on sulphydryl groups for activity and was unaffected by reagents that react with carboxyl groups.

    • Sodium transport in filamentous nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria

      Shree Kumar Apte Joseph Thomas

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      Two filamentous, nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria were examined for their salt tolerance and sodium (Na+) transport.Anabaena torulosa, a saline form, grew efficiently and fixed nitrogen even at 150 mM salt (NaCl) concentration while,Anabaena L-31, a fresh water cyanobacterium, failed to grow beyond 35 mM NaCl.Anabaena torulosa showed a rapidly saturating kinetics of Na+ transport with a high affinity for Na+(Km, 0.3 mM).Anabaena L-31 had a much lower affinity for Na+(Km, 2.8 mM) thanAnabaena torulosa and the pattern of uptake was somewhat different. BothAnabaena spp. exhibited an active Na+ extrusion which seems to be mediated by a Na+-K+ ATPase and aided by oxidative phosphorylation.Anabaena L-31 was found to retain much more intracellular Na+ thanAnabaena torulosa. The results suggest that the saline form tolerates high Na+ concentrations by curtailing its influx and also by an efficient Na+ extrusion, although these alone may not entirely account for its success in saline environment.

    • Anin vitro system to study drug sensitivity ofMycobacterium leprae using infected human tissue

      Lakshmi Vithala Swati Talati P R Mahadevan

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      A reliable screening technique for assessing the sensitivity ofMycobacterium leprae to drugs has been developed. The method is based on the susceptibility or otherwise ofM. leprae- infected tissues from lepromatous leprosy patients to the action of diaminodiphenyl sulphone (dapsone) or rifampicin on the incorporation of [14C]-acetate into lipids. The extent of inhibition or lack of inhibition correlated very well with the drug sensitivity or resistance of the bacteria isolated from the patients to the above drugs. A similar trend was observed when the incorporation into individual fractions of neutral lipids was measured. There was no incorporation by heat-killed tissues. This method correlates well with the 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine uptake studies.

    • Changes in rat liver mitochondrial lipids in vitamin A deficiency

      R S Mullick H R Adhikari U K Vakil

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      The alterations in the lipid profiles of rat liver mitochondria due to vitamin A deficiency were studied. The amount of total lipids and phospholipids were decreased with a concomitant increase in triglycerides and cholesterol levels in mitochondria, isolated from vitamin A-deficient animals. Of particular significance was the observation that the content of lysolecithin, a potent cytolytic agent, was increased. An analysis of individual fatty acids showed that the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids was decreased significantly in vitamin A deficiency. Further, mitochondria from vitamin A-deficient animals, when incubated in 0.1 M Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.4)in vitro, produced increased amounts of malondialdehyde and lipofuchsin pigments indicating increased susceptibility of the mitochondrial membrane to peroxidative damage. These results suggest a possible role of vitamin A in the prevention of the decomposition of structural lipids.

    • Intrinsic multiple antibiotic resistance markers for competitive and effectiveness studies with various strains of mung bean rhizobia

      R P Gupta M S Kaira S C Bhandari A S Khurana

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      Ten strains ofRhizobium sp. with multiple antibiotic resistance markers were used for competitive and ef ficiency studies with mung bean var. ML 5. All the strains showed significant increase in grain yield and so also for nitrogenase activity except MO 5. Nitrogenase activity correlated very well with grain yeild. The compatibility of strains varied from 17 to 50%. The intrinsic multiple antibiotic markers for strain identification were found to be stable after passing through soil and host conditions and could be used for ecological studies. It was further revealed that the overall efficiency of a strain is the combined effect of characters like compatability, competitiveness and inherent capacity to fix nitrogen.

    • The effect of propranolol on rat brain catecholamine biosynthesis

      Madhulika Srivastava Narinder K Kapoor

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      The effect of propranolol on the levels of catecholamine in different parts of rat brain has been studied. The catecholamine contents of different regions were lowered by the drug. Dopamine Β-hydroxylase activity was also reduced, bothin vivo andin vitro. Propranolol is taken up by the brain tissue and the uptake is time-dependent. These results suggests that reduction in brain catecholamine levels and dopamine Β-hydroxylase activity may be one of the possible ways through which the drug manifests its clinical effects.

    • Ureolytic and nitrifying bacterial heterotrophs from acid soils

      Balamani Bezbaruah

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      Nitrification following ureolysis in soil samples from tea growing soils (pH 4.5–5.5) was found to be chiefly due to the activity of heterotrophic bacteria belonging to generaBacillus, Arthrobacter, Sporosarcina, Micrococcus, Clostridium, Pseudomonas andProteus. A correlation between the intensity of ureolytic activity of organisms in a given soil sample and the yield levels of tea was observed. In culture media the increase in the quantity of NH4+ -N indicating ureolysis was not accompanied by proportional increase in biomass. Ureolysis and nitrification in sterile soil sample inoculated with the isolates improved through amendment of organic carbon to the soil.

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