• Volume 4, Issue 4

      December 1982,   pages  391-530

    • DNA, RNA, protein and DNases in developing rat cerebellum: Effects of early postnatal nutritional deprivation

      K V Subba Rao Kalluri Subba Rao

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      The effect of early postnatal undernutrition and subsequent rehabilitation on wet weight, DNA, RNA, protein and the activities of acid and alkaline DNases in the cerebellar region of rat brain was studied. The cerebellar region was found to be affected significantly during early undernutrition. Further, earlier the initiation of nutritional rehabilitation the better was the recovery and in some cases timely nutritional rehabilitation resulted in better than normal biochemical composition of the brain. The specific activities of acid and alkaline DNases were not affected by early undernutrition. However, the total activities of these enzymes were significantly low in undernourished rats (R115 and R21) Rehabilitation of these deprived groups upto 150 days resulted in higher amounts of these enzymes as compared to those of age-matched controls. It is concluded that the two DNases, are synthesized in a preferential manner during rehabilitation, It is further concluded that cerebellar region, in terms of development schedule and response to imposed calorie restriction, is intermediary between grey and white matter regions.

    • Lipofuscin like compound in mango

      T N Prabha M V Patwardhan

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      Thin layer chromatographic separation of chloroform-methanol extracts of mango on silica gel revealed a fluorescent substance in mango peel and pulp. The compound had fluorescence spectrum similar to that of lipofuscin, the age pigment of animal tissues and was found to be water insoluble and stable to ultraviolet irradiation. The fluorescent material appeared to be a lipoprotein.

    • Effect of repeated oral administration of quinalphos to male goat (Capra hircus)

      T S S Dikshith K K Datta R B Raizada

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      Quinalphos given in daily oral doses of 0.5 mg/kg for 110 days induced severe signs of organophosphorus poisoning in male goats. The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity in erythrocyte was highly significant. The activity of liver glutamic; oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic; pyruvic.transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and protein indicated marked alteration. The haematological changes were however, relatively less significant with the exception of a very low count of red blood cells and white blood cells in the treated animals. Among the vital organs, only liver suggested mild cellular changes due to quinalphos intoxication. There was no significant pathological change in other organs of the treated animals.

      In animals observed after 15 and 30 days rest, the activity of acetylcholinesterase in red blood cells and haematological picture showed a fairly good recovery. This study suggests that although quinalphos in low concentrations did not produce discernible cellular changes, it induced highly significant enzymatic and haematological changes in the goat.

    • Effect of temperature on endocytosis and degradation of sulphated proteoglycans by cultured skin fibroblasts

      Perumana R Sudhakaran Roswitha Prinz Kurt Von Figura

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      Temperature up to 16‡C reduced endocytosis of [35S]-proteoglycans by human skin fibroblasts to less than 15% of that at 37‡C. At temperatures between 20–26‡C endocytosis was more than 50%. At temperatures below 26‡C, the relative rate of degradation of endocytosed [35S]-proteoglycans was several fold less than the rate of endocytosis.

      Codistribution of endocytosed [35S]-proteoglycans and the lysosomal marker enzyme Β-hexosaminidase upon subcellular fractionation indicated that endocytotic vesicles containing [35S]-proteoglycans had fused with lysosomes at 37‡C and at 16‡C. The prolonged halflives of endocytosed [35S]-proteoglycans at 16–26‡C could not be explained merely by a temperature dependent reduction of catalytic activity of lysosomal enzymes participating in the degradation of sulphated proteoglycans.

    • Studies onMadhuca butyraceae seed proteins

      T Shanmugasundaram L V Venkataraman

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      DefattedMadhuca butyraceae seeds contain 24% of crude protein and 10.4% of saponins. The solubility ofMadhuca seed proteins was determined in water and NaCl as a function of pH and minimum solubility occurred at pH 4.0. The proteins consist of three components with S20,w values of 2.2, 9.8 and 15.4. On gel filtration the proteins gave three peaks and on diethylaminoethyl cellulose chromatography they resolved into two components. Thein vitro digestibility ofMadhuca seed protein was found to be 69% when assayed with a pepsin-pancreatin system.

    • Influence of red pepper and capsaicin on body composition and lipogenesis in rats

      K Sambaiah M N Satyanarayana

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      Inclusion of red pepper or its active principle ‘capsaicin’ in the diet led to a lowering of total lipids, particularly triglycerides in the liver. The total body fat was lowered in animals fed red pepper or capsaicin but not in animals fed paprika powder which had negligible capsaicin content. Hyperlipogensis and hypertriglyceridemia caused by fructose feeding were significantly were decreased in capsaicin-fed animals. Activities of the key lipogenic enzymes were reduced as reflected by decreased lipogenesis.

    • Regulation of phosphoglycerate mutase in developing forespores and dormant spores ofBacillus megaterium by thein vivo levels of phosphoglycerate mutase inhibitor

      Ravendra Pal Singh

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      Bacillus megaterium accumulated 3-phosphoglycerate during sporulation which was utilized during spore germination. During sporulation a protein was synthesized before or at the start of 3-phosphoglycerate accumulation inside the developing spores about 1.5 h before dipicolinic acid accumulation. This protein has an affinity for Mn2+ and other divalent metal ions and inhibits phosphoglycerate mutase activity which has been shown to require Mn2+ However, the levels of the inhibitor decreased considerably (75–85%) during spore germination. No appreciable amount of the inhibitor was detected in the vegetable cell and mother cell compartment; however, the forespore compartment possesses an activity comparable to that of dormant spores. The partially purified inhibitor has a molecular weight of 11,000 and possesses both high and low affinity binding sites for Mn2+ and Ca2+ as determined by Scatchard plot analysis.

    • Reactivity of fluorodinitrobenzene with intact human leucocytes: Examination of sites of action and the molecular entities involved in interaction

      S S Joshi V S Basrur M B Sahasrabudhe

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      The epsilon amino groups of lysine and to a lesser extent amino groups on phosphotidyl ethanolamine and phosphotidyl serine situated on cell membranes of normal human leucocytes have been identified as the sites of dinitrophenylation.In situ conversion of 10,000 hydrophylic amino sites into hydrophobic sites on cell surfaces causes conformational changes in cell membranes with exposures of leukaemic cell-specific neo-antigens on tagged cell surfaces.

    • [31P]-Nuclear magnetic resonance spin lattice relaxation in lecithin reverse micelles

      V V Kumar P T Manoharan P Raghunathan

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      [31P] -Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spin lattice relaxation times (T1) have been measured for lecithin-nonpolar solvent-water as a function of added water for three solvents, namely, benzene, carbon tetrachloride and cyclohexane. In benzene and carbon tetrachloride systems, where spherical reverse micelles are formed, [31P]-NMR T1, values increase linearly with added water. However, in cyclohexane, the trends in the [31P]-T1 values indicate very different micellisation processes. Even at the lowest concentration of added water, the [31P]-T1 values in this solvent are substantially larger than the corresponding values in benzene and carbon tetrachloride, which is attributed to the intramolecular chlorinephosphate interaction being the weakest in cyclohexane. At a higher water content of six mols of water per mol of lecithin in cyclohexane solvent, the [31P]-T1 values show a sharp decrease indicating a sudden change in the dynamics of the phosphate group, and this confirms the on set of ‘reverse micelle-to-liquid crystalline’ phase transition observed in this system by other spectroscopic and physical techniques.

    • Relationship between physiological energy expenditure and biomechanical patterns associated with erect standing

      D N Tibarewala S Ganguli

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      The deviation of the static weight-bearing patterns under the feet of a lower extremity handicapped person may be measured quantitatively in terms of the Static Weight-Bearing Index. This paper describes the correlation between this index and the physiological energy expenditure associated with the erect standing posture. The Static Weight-Bearing Index can be conveniently used for evaluation of the functional status of the human lower extremity system in stance in case of lower extremity disabled persons who maintain basic weight-bearing mode involving both the limbs in double support condition.

    • Effect of postweaning protein deficiency on the content and lipid composition of gray and white matter in neonatally undernourished rat brain

      T Sanjeeva Reddy C V Ramakrishnan

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      The effects of neonatal undernutrition and postweaning protein deficiency on the content and lipid composition of gray and white matter of 63 days old rat brain have been studied. The concentrations of different lipids remain the same, but the relative proportion of gray and white matter changes thus reflecting the differences in the concentration of whole brain lipids.

    • Ultrastractural features of the principal cell in the epididymis of the rhesus monkey

      T C Anand Kumar Asha Prakash M R N Prasad

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      The ultrastructural features of the principal cell in the epididymal epithelium of the monkey epididymis are suggestive of the cell carrying out a dual function of absorption and secretion. Both these functions occur on the luminal surface of the cell as well as on the lateral and basal aspects of the cell which face the intercellular spaces. Transmision Electron Microscopic studies of epididymal tissues following their impregnation with lanthanum nitrate indicated that the intercellular spaces are effectively sealed-off from the luminal space by the apically situated tight junctions between adjoining principal cells. The intercellular spaces are contiguous with the perivascular spaces of the subepithelial blood capillaries. It is suggested that the absorptive and secretory functions occuring on the apical surface of cells may be related to the creation of an appropriate intraluminal milieu for the maturation of spermatozoa while the occurrence of these functions in the intercellular spaces may represent an exchange of substances between the principal cells and the subepithelial capillaries.

    • Assessment of three simple techniques for the screening of circulating immune complexes: Correlation with a parameter of complement consumption

      A N Malaviya Naresh K Gupta Premavathy Rajagopalan R Kumar

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      The sera of 36 normal controls, 45 patients with various diseases and 11 pregnant women were screened for circulating immune complexes using three relatively simple and inexpensive techniques. These included inhibition of agglutination of IgG coated latex particles with a serum having rheumatoid factor activity, polyethylene glycol precipitation and anti-complementary activity test. The circulating immune complexes were detected in a significantly higher proportion of patients as compared to normal controls. In the patients, the presence of circulating immune complexes did not always correlate with clinically detectable immunoinflammatory tissue damage indicating that pathogenic as well as nonpathogenic immune complexes were being detected by the above mentioned techniques. The alpha-1-antitrypsin/C3 ratio, however, correlated well with clinically apparent immuno-inflammation.

    • Circulating immune complexes in rodent and simian malaria

      B Ravindran R R Sharma B K Sharma Q Z Hussain

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      The circulating immune complexes have been detected in the sera of albino rats infected withPlasmodium berghei and rhesus monkeys infected with P.knowlesi by (i) quantitative cryoprecipitation assay and (ii) polyethylene glycol assay. In the rodent model, the levels of circulating immune complexes increased during infection and decreased considerably in the post-infection period. In the simian system, high levels were detected during peak parasitaemia. Polyethylene glycol precipitate obtained from the sera during acuteP. knowlesi infection when analysed by Immunoelectrophoresis was found to contain (i) monkey IgG, (ii) four other components of monkey plasma, (iii) two components of normal monkey erythrocytes and (iv) antigen(s) ofP. knowlesi.

    • Studies on precipitating and hemagglutinating antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus

      M Ishaq Asif Ali A N Malaviya Rashid Ali

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      We studied the precipitating and hemagglutinating autoantibodies in the sera of patients with various connective tissue diseases in general and lupus in particular. Saline soluble extract of goat thymus had adequate antigenic materials as compared to other organs. Twenty per cent of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus were positive for precipitating autoantibodies by immunodiffusion and 44% by counterimmunoelectrophoresis. Normal human subjects, nonrheumatic disease patients and patients with rheumatoid arthritis and progressive systemic sclerosis were all negative. Forty seven per cent of positive systemic lupus erythematosus sera showed two precipitin systems. Enzyme sensitivities were used as the basis of identification of most of the antigenic specificities. Passive hemagglutination was carried out to identify antibodies to non-histone nuclear protein and nuclear ribonucleo-protein antigens. Thirty eight % of systemic lupus erythematosus patients were positive by this technique. Passive hemagglutination although a highly sensitive technique could not detect antibodies against antigenic systems other than non-histone nuclear protein and nuclear ribonucleoprotein.

    • Detection of filarial infection usingWuchereria bancrofti microfilariae culture antigen and filter paper blood samples in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay

      Ashok Malhotra M V R Reddy J N Naidu S N Ghirnikar B C Harinath

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      Blood collected on filter paper by finger-prick gave results comparable to intravenous serum samples when analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All the 100 microfilaraemia, 5 out of 100 endemic normals and none of the 10 nonendemic normal filter paper blood samples showed the presence of filarial antibody when tested by this method,using culture antigen and anti-immunoglubulins, class G, M and A — penicillinase conjugate. When the same samples were screened for the presence of IgM antibody, 91 out of 100 microfilaraemia, 13 out of 100 endemic normal and none of the 10 nonendemic normal samples showed a positive reaction. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, using culture antigen and filter paper blood samples, appears to work in large field studies for detection of filarial infection.

    • The mealybug chromosome system I: Unusual methylated bases and dinucleotides in DNA of aPlanococcus species

      Dileep N Deobagkar K Muralidharan Sushilkumar G Devare Krishna K Kalghatgi H Sharat Chandra

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      The methylation status of the nuclear DNA from a mealybug, aPlanococcus species, has been studied. Analysis of this DNA by High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Thin Layer Chromatography revealed the presence of significant amounts of 5-—methylcytosine. Since analysis of DNA methylation using the Msp I/Hpa II system showed only minor differences in susceptibility of the DNA to the two enzymes, it seemed possible that 5-methylcytosine (5mC) occurred adjacent to other nucleotides in addition to its usual position, next to guanosine. This was verified by dinucleotide analysis of DNA labelledin vitro by nick translation. These data show that the total amount of 5-methylcytosine in this DNA is slightly over 2.3 mol %, of which 0.61% occurs as the dinucleotide 5mCpG, 0.68% as 5mCpA, 0.59% as 5mCpT and 0.45% as 5mCpC. 5mCpG represents approximately 3.3% of all CpG dinucleotides. The experimental procedure would not have permitted the detection of 5mCp5mC, if it occurs in this system. Unusually high amounts of 6-methyladenine (approximately 4 mol %) and 7-methylguanine (approximately 2 mol %) were also detected, 6-methyladenine and 7-methylguanine occurred adjacent to all four nucleotides. The total G+C content was 33.7% as calculated from dinucleotide data and 32.9% as determined from melting profiles.

    • Production of antibodies specific to human chorionic gonadotropin in mice immunized against its chemical analogs

      Kambadur Muralidhar Om P Bhal

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    • Dosage compensation and sex determination in Drosophila: Mechanism of measurement of the X/A ratio

      Raghavendra Gadagkar Vidyanand Nanjundiah N V Joshi H Sharat Chandra

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    • Acknowledgements

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