• Volume 3, Issue 1

      March 1981,   pages  1-88

    • Antifungal activity of bacitracin and its interaction with metals

      G Venkateswerlu

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      Bacitracin was more growth-inhibitory toNeurospora crassa on a minimal magnesium medium than on a normal magnesium-medium. Both magnesium and manganese were able to counteract the growth inhibition. The antifungal activity of bacitracin was potentiated by zinc. Potassium could not counteract the growth inhibition by this antibiotic. The mycelial magnesium levels were low in bacitracin-inhibited cultures.

    • Immobilization and properties of β-D-galactosidase fromLactobacillus bulgaricus

      H P S Makkar O P Sharma S S Negi

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      β-D-galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.23) fromLactobacillus bulgaricus (1373) was immobilized by entrapment in a Polyacrylamide gel lattice. The enzymatic properties of the immobilized β-galactosidase were compared with those of the native enzyme. The temperature and pH optima were not affected by the immobilization. After entrapment of the enzyme no significant change was observed in its thermostability. The pH stability of the immobilized enzyme was higher than that of the native enzyme on the acidic side. TheKm values for the immobilized and native β-galactosidase with both lactose ando-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactoside as substrates were comparable. The immobilized enzyme could be repeatedly used 12 times without any loss of activity. No loss in the activity of the immobilized β-galactosidase was found after its storage for 30 days at 4°C and for 20 days at 25°C.

    • Effect of malathion exposure on some physical parameters of whole body and on tissue cations of teleost,Tilapia mossambica(Peters)

      I Kabeer Ahammad Sahib K S Jagannatha Rao K V Ramana Rao

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      Exposure of fish to a sublethal (2 mg/litre/48h) concentration of malathion showed no significant changes in any of the physical parameters investigated like, body weight and body water content, while the oxygen consumption of the fish showed a consistent increase upto 24 h and later declined to 8% suggesting the reduction of oxidative metabolism at the end of 48 h. The sodium, potassium and calcium ions showed a remarkable decrease in all the tissues of malathion-exposed fish, suggesting the loss of ions from the body of these fish. The results suggested that the regulation of osmotic balance may occur by an effective operation of the salt pump rather than the water pump.

    • The inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport by methyl parathion

      P R Anbudurai R Mannar Mannan Salil Bose

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      The effect of methyl parathion (metacid-50), an organophosphorous insecticide, on the Hill reactions of isolated mesophyll chloroplasts ofSorghum vulgare was studied. The pesticide was found to inhibit the Hill reaction with all the Hill oxidants tested, namely potassium ferricyanide,2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol and para-benzoquinone. The concentration of the pesticide required to inhibit 50% of the control Hill activity (I50value) was found to vary with the different Hill oxidants.

    • Structure of presynaptic toxins: Crystallization and preliminary x-ray diffraction data on Notechis II-5, a presynaptic toxin phospholipase

      K K Kannan S Sinh M Ramanadham D Eaker

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      The presynaptic neutrotoxin-phospholipase, Notechis II-5 from the venom of NotechisScutatus scutatus (Australian tiger snake) has been crystallized in a form suited for x-ray diffraction analysis. The crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P21 21,21, with unit cell dimensions, a=146.1,b =43.5 and c =39.0 A. There are two molecules of Notechis II-5 in the asymmetric unit. The molecular weight is about 13,500. Notechis II-5 is highly homologous to Notexin, another presynaptic toxin from the venom of the Australian tiger snake, to bovine and porcine pancreatic phospholipases A and other venom phospholipases.

    • Action of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and rifampicin on heterocyst differentiation in the blue-green alga,Nostoc linckia

      D N Tiwari A K Pandey A K Mishra

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      2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, a commonly used herbicide, increased the growth of the filamentous blue-green alga,Nostoc linckia at doses upto 100 μg /ml. The herbicidetreated N2-cultures showed enhanced heterocyst frequency and N2-growth. Thus, the herbicide stimulated algal growth at the expense of molecular nitrogen under aerobic growth conditions. Rifampicin caused chain formation of heterocysts. This was effectively counteracted by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, suggesting a biological interaction between them at the level of the heterocyst spacing control mechanism.

    • Canavanine-lnduced inhibition of growth and heterocyst differentiation inAnabaena doliolum and isolation of a canavanine-resistant mutant

      A KUMAR H D Kumar

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      The effect of the arginine analogue, canavanine on growth and heterocyst differentiation in the nitrogen-fixing algaAnabaena doliolum has been studied. The analogue inhibited growth and heterocyst differentiation at a concentration as low as 1 μM. The treated algal cells lacked conspicuous granular inclusions, whereas treatment with chloramphenicol led to increased synthesis of granules (probably cyanophycin granules). Exogenously added arginine completely reversed the effect of the analogue but lysine could only partially relieve the effect. A time course study with canavanine indicated inhibition of fresh protein(s) synthesis at all steps where a new class of proteins is synthesized so that the action of the analogue does not seem to be specific for a particular kind of protein. A mutant resistant to this analogue has been successfully isolated indicating that this alga does not show mutational immunity at least to the amino acid analogues unlike in the observation with different antibiotics. Our observations indicate that canavanine either directly inhibits protein synthesis or forms defective protein(s) which produces all the observed effects.

    • Excretion of lysine byMicrococcus glutamicus

      Meena Lakshman M R Raghavendra Rao

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      Analysis of intracellular and extracellular lysine concentration during lysine fermentation byMicrococcus glutamicus AEC RN-13-6/1 indicated that lysine excretion occurs against a concentration gradient towards the end of the fermentation period. The capacity to excrete lysine against a concentration gradient may be a factor contributing to the high yield of lysine.

    • Aspartokinase of a lysine producing mutant ofMicrococcus glutamicus

      Meena Lakshman B C Shenoy M R Raghavendra Rao

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      Aspartokinase fromMicrococcus glutamicus AEC RN-13-6/1 [a homoserine requiring, S-(2-aminoethyl)-L-cysteine resistant, lysine producing strain] was purified 71 fold. The partially purified enzyme was inhibited by L-lysine. L-threonine, L-methionine, L-isoleucine, L-valine and L-phenylalanine activated the enzyme and reversed the inhibition by L-lysine. Aspartokinase activity was not derepressed by growth-limiting concentrations of L-threonine and/or L-methionine. It was not repressed by an excess of L-lysine (20 mM) and/or L-isoleucine (15.3 mM). The degree of activation or inhibition by amino acids was dependant on the composition of the growth medium. This observation is in contrast with the enzyme from the original (non-lysine-producing) strain which was inhibited by lysine or threonine and in a concerted manner by threonine plus lysine.

    • Nature of leukemia-associated antigenicity of dinitrophenylated human lymphocytes and lymphoblasts

      S S Joshi V S Basrur M B Sahasrabudhe

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      Using dinitrophenylated human lymphocytes and phytohaemagglutinin-stimulated human lymphoblasts as antigens, antibodies were produced in rabbits. The immunological reactivities of the antisera so produced were tested against various types of leukemic cells after absorbing the sera with pooled normal leukocytes. Both the sera showed reactivity with all types of leukemic cells and no specific affinity for lymphoid leukemic cells was seen. This may suggest the presence of some common antigens on all types of leukemic cells or that dinitrophenylation brings about similar changes on all types of normal leukocytes.

    • Animal model for testing human Ascaris allergens

      Krishna Mukerji R P Saxena S N Ghatak K C Saxena

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      Guinea pigs immunized through the nasal route by an antigenic preparation of humanAscaris lumbricoides produced predominantly homocytotropic antibodies. The sensitization of the homologous skin required a latency period. Hypersensitivity reaction was triggered within 30 min. of the antigen challenge. The antibodies were sensitive to heat and β-mercaptoethanol treatments and appeared to be similar to the IgE type of immunoglobulins of man and rabbit. The antigenic preparation elicited an immediate type of skin hypersensitivity reaction also in human subjects harbouring the Ascaris parasite. The guinea pig model appears suitable for testing the activity of Ascaris allergens.

    • Effect of human chorionic gonadotropin on serum levels of progesterone and estrogens in the pregnant bonnet monkev (Macaca radiata)

      A Jagannadha Rao S G Kotagi N R Moudgal

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      Administration of human chorionic gonadotropin to pregnant bonnet monkeys(Macaca radiata) at 55–60 days and 130–140 days of pregnancy resulted in a significant increase in serum progesterone levels. This effect could be observed even in lutectomized monkeys. However, no significant change in the serum estrogen level was noticed. These results suggest that although no chorionic gonadotropin is detectable in the serum after 35 days of pregnancy, the foetoplacental steroidogenic system is still responsive to exogenous gonadotropic stimulation.

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