Volume 2, Issue 3
September 1980, pages 163-266
pp 163-169 September 1980
Rabbit antisera were prepared against the purified glucoamylases I and II ofAspergillus niger. Relationships between the two enzyme forms were investigated by using the antisera in immunodiffusion and immunoinhibition experiments. Both the forms of glucoamylase gave a single continuous precipitin band demonstrating very close structural resemblance. They gave almost identical immunoprecipitation patterns and had the same equivalence points indicating that the two forms ofA. niger gluoamylases were immunologically identical. The enzyme treated with periodate was immunologically identical with the controls and had slightly less enzyme activity but showed greatly reduced stability on storage at 4‡ C.
pp 171-179 September 1980
Activities and a few properties of alkaline phosphatase and 5’-nucleotidase were compared in the developing human placenta. Both the enzymes were mostly membrane-bound and displayed similar developmental patterns with the highest activities at 24/26 weeks of the placenta. L-Phenylalanine, L-tryptophan and L-leucine were inhibitors of alkaline phosphatase, whereas they had no effect on the 5’-nucleotidase. Alkaline phosphatase from a late stage of gestation appeared to be almost heat-stable. An appreciable part of 5’-nucleotidase was also resistant to heat inactivation and this fraction varied with gestational age of the tissue. For both the enzymes, Vmax changed without alteringKm values with periods of gestation. Ca2+, Mg2+ and Mn2+ ions stimulated the alkaline phosphatase activity and Hg2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Ni2+ were inhibitory. 5’-Nucleotidase was not activated by any of these cations. EDTA and Concanavalin A inhibited both the enzymes, although the extent of inhibition was different and also varied with gestation.
pp 181-189 September 1980
Glutathione-S-transferase (EC 220.127.116.11) activity was assayed in hepatic and extra-hepatic tissues of pigeons using l-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene as substrates. Gluthathione-S-transferase activity towards 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene in pigeon was in the order: kidney > liver > testes > brain > lung> heart. The enzyme activity with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene as substrate was 40–44 times higher in pigeon liver and kidney than that observed with 1,2-dichloro-4-dinitrobenzene as substrate.Km values of hepatic and renal glutathione transferase with l-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene as substrate were 2.5 and 3 mM respectively. Double reciprocal plots with varying reduced gluthathione concentrations resulted in biphasic curves with twoKm values (liver 0.31 mM and 4mM; kidney 0.36 mM and 1.3 mM). The enzyme activity was inhibited by oxidized gluthathione in a dose-dependent pattern. 3-Methylcholanthrene elicited about 50% induction of hepatic glutathione transferase activity whereas phénobarbital was ineffective.
pp 191-201 September 1980
Buffalo milk galactosyltransferase is a single poly-peptide of molecular weight 55,000 to 56,000. The enzyme is specific for glucose as an acceptor substrate in the presence of 8-lactalbumin, L-Arabinose. L-xylose, D-ribose and D-fructose did not serve as acceptor substrates even at concentration as high as 0.13 M, while N-acetylglucosamine and ovalbumin served as good acceptors of galactosyl moiety in the absence of ∞ -lactalbumin. UDP-galacturonic acid did not serve as a donor substrate; on the contrary, it inhibited the reaction. Lactose synthetase reaction was inhibited by D-ribose, L-arabinose and L-xylose, whereas D-fructose did not show any inhibition. Buffalo milk ∞ -lactalbumin enhanced the synthesis of lactose but inhibited the synthesis of N-acetyllactosamine. Cations like Ca2+, Mg2+, Cu2+, Ba2+ and Co2+ could not replace Mn2+ in the N-acetyllactosamine synthetase reaction. Except Co2+, these cations had no effect on this reaction. Co2+ was found to be a competitive inhibitor of Mn2+. The observed inhibition of the reaction by-EDTA also confirmed the absolute requirement of Mn2+ for the reaction. Lactose synthetase reaction had an optimum pH of 8.5, whereas N-acetyllactosamine synthetase reaction was maximal at pH 8.0.
pp 203-210 September 1980
Hexokinase is present in the tissues in four isoenzymic forms. Cerebral tissue contains predominantly Type I hexokinase which is believed to be insulin-insensitive. In cerebral tissue about 60 to 70% of the hexokinase is bound to the particulate fraction. The changes in the distribution of hexokinase Type I and Type II together with the bound and free hexokinase have been studied in control, diabetic and diabetic animals treated with insulin. The results indicate that the presence of insulin is essential for the normal binding of the hexokinase to the particulate fraction. In heart tissue, Type II hexokinase bound to the pellet shows a significant decrease in diabetes, which is reversed on insulin administration.
pp 211-225 September 1980
A homogenous and crystalline form of nucleotide pyrophosphatase (EC 18.104.22.168) fromPhaseolus aureus (mung bean) seedlings was used for the study of the regulation of enzyme activity by adenine nucleotides. The native dimeric form of the enzyme had a helical content of about 65% which was reduced to almost zero values by the addition of AMP. In addition to this change in the helical content, AMP converted the native dimer to a tetramer. Desensitization of AMP regulation, without an alteration of the molecular weight, was achieved either by reversible denaturation with 6 M urea or by passage through a column of Blue Sepharose but additionofp-hydroxymercuribenzoate desensitized the enzyme by dissociating the native dimer to a monomer. The changes in the quaternary structure and conformation of the enzyme consequent to AMP interaction or desensitization were monitored by measuring the helical content, EDTA inactivation and Zn2+ reactivation, stability towards heat denaturation, profiles of urea denaturation and susceptibility towards proteolytic digestion. Based on these results and our earlier work on this enzyme, we propose a model for the regulation of the mung bean nucleotide pyrophosphatase by association-dissociation and conformational changes. The model emphasizes that multiple mechanisms are operative in the desensitization of regulatory proteins.
pp 227-233 September 1980
Intestinal brush border proteins consist of an enzymatically active hydrophilic moiety attached to a hydrophobic tail. Papain dissociates the hydrophilic part by cleaving off the hydrophobic tail, whereas the detergentTriton X-100 solubilizes the whole molecule. Denaturation by 8 M urea or 4 M guanidinium chloride does not alter the structure of the papain-solubilized enzyme. An appreciable alteration of the structure of detergent-solubilized enzyme was observed on denaturation. The difference spectra of Triton X-100 (1%)—solubilized enzyme and its urea denatured form shifts and intensifies, with increase in the concentration of the denaturant with an isobestic point at 252 nm. A new band at 280 nm also appears at 4 M urea concentration. Papain-solubilized glucoamylase has an ∞ -helical conformation in solution unlike the detergentsolubilized fraction. An elongated structure for the papain solubilized enzyme is inferred from the urea denaturation studies and from molecular weight determinations.
pp 235-241 September 1980
Fatty acids, cholesterol and glucose present in axenic medium are utilized by growingEntamoeba histolytica but the amoeba is unable to synthesize cholesterol from [U-14 C- ] glucose although the label is incorporated into the fatty acids and non-saponifiable fractions of the organism. Exogenously-added sonicated dispersions of cholesterol, Β-sitosterol, lanosterol, lecithin and lauric, palmitic, linoleic and stearic acids are ingested by the amoebae with subsequent loss in amoeboid movement. After a few hours the movement is regained. Cholesterol, lecithin and the fatty acids stimulate amoebic multiplication but are unable to replace serum in the medium either singly or in combination.
pp 243-251 September 1980
Total tRNA was purified from skeletal muscle of young, adult and old female albino rats. Age-dependent variation of total tRNA was the same with respect to tRNA content and biological activity as measured by amino acid acceptor capacity. The tRNA content was more in young rats and showed a gradual decrease in the adult and old rats. The relative abundancy of eleven aminoacyl-tRNAs were checked at each age and during aging. Arginyl, glutamyl and tyrosyl-tRNAs do not show any quantitative or qualitative change with age.
pp 253-259 September 1980
A significant positive correlation was observed between multiplicity of infection and burst size of mycobacteriophage 13. During multiple infections, the average contribution of each infecting phage to the burst size was inversely correlated with multiplicity of infection even when bacterial resources were not limiting. We conclude that the efficiency of phage-coded functions rather than the extent of bacterial resources determines the burst size.
pp 261-266 September 1980
Ultrastructural studies on the spermatozoa in different regions of the epididymis of the rhesus monkey have shown that the process of sperm maturation is associated with the caudad migration of the cytoplastmic droplet, a reduction in the volume of the cytoplasmic droplet, and an obvious wrinkling of the plasma membrane surrounding the head of the spermatozoa. These changes are completed by the time the spermatozoa reach the distal-middle segment of the epididymis. The present studies also indicate that spermatozoa are incorporated into the intraepithelial cells in the epidymis. This finding suggests that spermiophagy is a normal occurrence in the epidymis of rhesus monkey.