• Volume 2, Issue 1

      March 1980,   pages  1-86

    • High resolution nuclear magnetic resonance studies of hen’s egg yolk plasma lipoproteins

      K R K Easwaran K S Raju S Mahadevan

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      High resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of native or protease-treated hen’s egg yolk plasma (very low density lipoproteins) were taken either in water or deuterated water; the protease-treated samples showed a sharpening of choline methyl proton signal of phospholipid, indicating the hindrance of the choline head-group rotation by the phospholipids in the native very low density lipoproteins. With both native and the protease-treated egg yolk plasma, elevated temperatue increased the signal intensity and produced line-sharpening of Q choline methyl protons and the — CH2-C-protons of the methylene group adjacent to the carboxyl group of esterified fatty acids, indicating prior restriction of mobility of these groups. Total extracted lipids of egg yolk plasma containing traces of chloroform, methanol and water (which keep the sample in one phase) also gave similar temperature dependence. Addition of water to the same sample and sonication resulted in the loss of temperature dependence. Frozen and thawed protease-treated egg yolk plasma also behaved in a similar manner. The absence of temperature dependence in these latter two samples is believed to be due to formation of bilayers of phospholipids following phase separation of triglycerides and phospholipids. The results support a model in which the lipoprotein particles of the egg yolk plasma have a lipid-core structure containing triglycerides in the centre with a monomolecular layer of lecithin at the surface, the polar heads of which are surrounded by proteins.

    • Regulation of rat liver NADP+-isocitrate dehydrogenase during aging

      R N Singh Yadav S N Singh

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      In an attempt to understand the mechanism of aging in relation to the differences in enzyme regulation, the induction and kinetic properties of NADP+ -isocitrate dehydrogenase of the liver of immature (6 weeks), mature (13 weeks), adult (33 weeks) and old (85 weeks) female rats were studied. The specific activity of the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial NADP+ -isocitrate dehydrogenase increased up to the adult age (33 weeks) and decreased in the old rats (85 weeks). Overiectomy decreased and estradiol administration induced activity of both the mitochondrial and eytoplasmic enzyme in the liver ol immature, mature and adult rats but had no significant effect in old rats. However, the activity of mitochondrial NADP+ -isocitrate dehydrogenase decreased and eytoplasmic NADP+ -isocitrate dehydrogenase increased following ovariectomy in old rats (85 weeks). Hormone-mediated induction of enzyme activity was actinomycin D sensitive. The Km for isocitrate and NADP, Ki value for oxalomalate, heat stability and electrophoretic mobility of the purified enzyme from the cytosol fraction of the liver of immature and old rats were similar. It can he concluded that the enzyme does not change structurally with age.

    • Interactions of progesterone with D-amino acid oxidase—different effects on apo- and holo-enzyme

      Faizy Ahmed Mahatab S Bamji

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      A simple method using charcoal treatment was developed for the preparation of apo-D-amino acid oxidase from rat kidney homogenates. This apo-D-amino acid oxidase was used to study the effect of progesterone on the apo- and holo-enzyme. Progesterone inhibited the activity of D-amino acid oxidase, when the apo-enzyme, preincubated with saturating amounts of FAD was used; this effect varied with FAD concentration. Progesterone did not inhibit the activity when added to a mixture of non-preincubated apo-enzyme and FAD; this suggests that progesterone has different effects on apo- and holo D-amino acid oxidase.

    • Lectin from rice

      P Indravathamma H S Seshadri

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      N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine-binding lectin was isolated and purified from rice by ammonium sulphate fractionation and affinity chromatography using N-acetyl-D-glucosamine linked Sepharose 6B column. It gave a single hand on Polyacrylamide disc gel. It was identified as a glycoprotein. The purified lectin dissociated into two components on Sephadex G-100 column chromatography,-a higher molecular weight fraction not containing any carbohydrate and a lower molecular weight glycoprotein fraction. The apparent molecular weights of these fractions were 85,000 and 14,500. The lectin agglutinated erythrocytes of human A,B,O groups and of several other mammals and its activity was inhibited only by N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. The glycopeptide isolated by pronase digestion of the lectin was homogeneous and did not possess agglutinating activity. It contained about 10% carbohydrate of which xylose, arabinose and glucose were the major components.

    • Impact of malathion on acetylcholinesterase in the tissues of the fishTilapia mossambica (Peters)—a time course study

      I Kabeer Ahammad Sahib D Sailatha K V Ramana Rao

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      The sublethal toxic potency of malathion in inhibiting acetylcholinesterase activity of brain, muscle, gill and liver tissues of the fish,Tilapia mossambica was studied at 12 h intervals. Maximum in hibition at 36 and 48 h, and complete revival of acetylcholinesterase activity after 72 h was noticed, suggestive of the loss of inhibition of the enzyme activity was probably by suitable (acetylcholine) accumulation.

    • Studies on the oxidation of tannins byAspergillus flavus

      M Mallika S C Dhar

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      A method for the estimation of tannin in presence of catechin, pyrogallol, protocatechuic acid and gallic acid using polyamide column chromatography was developed. Tannin added to the growing culture ofAspergillus flavus was oxidised to different extents depending on the duration of incubation. The oxidised compound was identified in the culture filtrate as a polymerised product of tannin.

    • Preliminary studies on the toxicity and mutagenicity of 1-amino-2-naphthol-4-sulphonic acid inDrosophila melanogaster

      M V Gayathri N B Krishnamurthy

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      The toxicity and mutagenicity of 1-amino-2-naphtho-4-sulphonic acid were analysed inDrosphila melanogaster. Rate of development and viability were the two parameters employed to study the toxicity. The frequency of dominant lethals was scored to evaluate the mutagenic effect of the chemical on male and female germ cells. Concentrations of 250 mg and above/100 ml wheat cream agar medium were found to be significantly toxic. Significant number of dominant lethals was induced even by a concentration as low as 50 mg/100 ml medium. Male germ cells were more sensitive than female germ cells.

    • Immunoprecipitation of 70S, 50S and 30S ribosomes ofEscherichia coli

      D K Lahiri D P Burma

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      Antibodies were raised in rabbits against 70S ribosomes, 50S and 30S ribosomal subunits individually. Purified immunoglobulins from the antiserum against each of the above ribosomal entities were tested for their capabilities of precipitating 70S, 50S and 30S ribosomes. The observations revealed the following: (i) The antiserum (IgG) raised against 70S ribosomes precipitates 70S ribosomes completely, while partial precipitation is seen with the subunits, the extent of precipitation being more with the 50S subunits than with 30S subunits; addition of 50S subunits to the 30S subunits facilitates the precipitation of 30S subunits by the antibody against 70S ribosomes. (ii) Antiserum against 50S subunits has the ability to immunoprecipitate both 50S and 70S ribosomes to an equal extent. (iii) Antiserum against 30S subunits also has the property of precipitating both 30S and 70S ribosomes. The differences in the structural organisation of the two subunits may account for the differences in their immunoprecipitability.

    • Chromatic adaptation and photoreversal in blue-green algaCalothrix clavata West

      A S Ahluwalia R K Rai H D Kumar

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      Complementary chromatic adaptation, a well-established phenomenon in some blue-green algae, has been observed inCalothrix clavata, a heterocystous blue-green alga of the family Rivulariaceae. The chromatic adaptation has been observed for fluorescent and incandescent light by measuring the absorption spectra. The material grown in fluorescent light forms more of phycoerythrin whereas more of phycocyanin tends to be formed in incandescent light. Besides this, photoreversal was observed by transferring the incandescent light grown alga to fluorescent light conditions and vice-versa. Effect of photoreversal and chromatic adaptation has also been discussed for this alga under different monochromatic light conditions. The influence of different light conditions on morphological changes, heterocysts and hormogonia formation has also been investigated. Both chromatic adaptation and photomorphogentic phenolmena in this alga show the involvement of some photoreversible (red:green) pigment.

    • The role of follitropin and lutropin on the ovarian function in rats

      A Jagannadha Rao Choh hao Li

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      Adult cycling female rats were treated with antisera to highly purified human follitropin and lutropin for eight days. The effect of this treatment on thein vitro steroidogenic response of the ovarian cells isolated from these rats to follitropin and lutropin has been investigated. Neutralisation of follitropin did not have significant effect on steroid production in response to lutropin. However, neutralisation of lutropin resulted in a very significant inhibition of response to both follitropin and lutropin.

    • Modulation of testicular lutropin receptors in the developing male rat

      M S K Prasad P R Adiga

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      In the developing male rat around 40 days of age, the testis appears to contain the maximum amount of lutropin receptors per unit weight. During this period, circulating levels of testosterone markedly increase without the concomitant major surges in lutropin levels. The increased sensitivity and responsiveness of tests to basal levels of circulating lutropin during this period is accompanied by enhanced serum prolactin levels suggesting that this hormone may be involved in this process. The finding that prolactin treatment of pubertal rats for 3 days induced the formation of more testicular lutropin receptors supports the above premise. However, shortterm immunoneutralisation of endogenous prolactin did not significantly alter the specific binding of [ 125 I ]-labelled lutropin to testicular membranes. Interestingly, during development, a close correction exists between receptor occupancy and capacity of the tissue to bind labelled lutropin. The apparent dissociation between serum lutropin levels, on the one hand and tissue occupancy and free receptor contents on the other, suggests that factors other than lutropin (presumably prolactin) are involved in the modulation of the sensitivity and the responsiveness of the testis to lutropin during early development.

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