• Volume 1, Issue 1

      March 1979,   pages  1-107

    • Interaction of amino acids with glycyl-glycine transport in the mammalian intestine

      V Ganapathy M D Hellier A N Radhakrishnan

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      In order to investigate a possible interaction between free amino acids and dipeptides during their mucosal uptake in man and monkey, perfusion studiesin vivo and uptake studiesin vitro using labelled and non-labelled dipeptides and amino acids have been carried out. In contrast to the observations of other workers, inhibition of glycyl-glycine uptake was observed with free leucine and methioninc but not with glycine, proline, hydroxyproline or alanine. Leucine and methionine caused inhibition of cytosol glycyl-glycine hydrolase activity, while glycine had no effect. The dipeptide uptake and dipeptide hydrolysis by cytosol enzyme was competitively inhibited by leucine. Although brush border glycyl-glycine hydrolase was also inhibited by leucine, the inhibition was noncompetitive. These data indicate that a few free amino acids can interact with dipeptides during uptake. This interaction might occur either at the transport step or at the stage of intracellular dipeptide hydrolysis.

    • Studies on glutamine synthetase. Purification of the enzyme from mung bean (Phaseolus aureus) seedlings and modulation of the enzyme-antibody reaction by the substrates

      S Seethalakshmi N Appaji Rao

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      Glutamine synthetase (L-glutamate : ammonia ligase, EC fromPhaseolus aureus (mung bean) seedlings was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulphate fractionation, DEAE-cellulose chromatography, Sephadex G-200 gel filtration and affinity chromatography on histidine-Sepharose. The enzyme had a molecular weight of 775,000 ± 25,000. The enzyme consisted of identical subunits with an approximate subunit molecular weight of 50,000. Hyperbolic saturation curves were obtained with the substrates, glutamate, ATP and hydroxylamine.

      Antibody, raised in the rabbit, against mung bean glutamine synthetase, completely inhibited the activity of the enzyme. Preincubation of the enzyme with glutamate and ATP, prior to the addition of the antibody, partially protected the enzyme against inhibition. TheKm values of this enzyme-antibody complex and the native enzyme were identical (glutamate, 2.5mM; ATP, 1 mM; hydroxylamine, 0.5 mM). The Km values of the partially inhibited enzyme (the enzyme pretreated with antibody prior to the addition of substrates) were 2-fold higher than those of the native enzyme. These results suggested that the substrate-induced conformational changes in the enzyme were responsible for the protection against inhibition of the enzyme activity by the antibody.

    • Changes in carbohydrates and lipids during embryonic development ofAntheraea mylitta (Lepidoptera)

      Radha Pant Suman Kumar Shiva Dhar Singh

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      Changes in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism during embryonic development inAntheraea mylitta were studied. While carbohydrates were metabolized during early embryogenesis, lipids were catabolised at the later stages. A significant increase in both total carbohydrates and glycogen on days 5 and 6 suggested the concurrent occurrence of both gluconeogenesis and glycogenesis. As the development of the embryo proceeds, both lipids and carbohydrates were utilised, resulting in the increase in the concentration of citrate, pyruvate and lactate.

    • Metal binding to pyridoxal derivatives. An NMR study of the interaction of Eu(III) with pyridoxal phosphate and pyridoxamine phosphate

      B N Narasinga Rao C Ramakrishnan P Balaram

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      The solution conformations of pyridoxal-5′ -phosphate and pyridoxamine-5′-phosphate have been investigated using Eu(III) as a nuclear magnetic resonance shift probe. Binding of Eu(III) to pyridoxal phosphate results in the formation of two complexes, at the phosphate group and theo-hydroxy-aldehyde moiety, which are in slow exchange on the nuclear magnetic resonance time-scale. The lanthanide-induced pseudo contact shifts calculated using the McConnell-Robertson equation (J. Chem. Soc. (1950), 22, 1561) are in good agreement with the experimentally observed values for both pyridoxal phosphate and pyridoxamine phosphate and lead to a family of closely related conformations.

    • A rapid and gentle method for the salt extraction of chromatin core histones H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 from rat liver nuclei

      M Jamaluddin Mohananphilip H Sharat Chandra

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      A complex of histones H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 has been isolated from purified rat liver nuclei by a method which is both gentle and rapid. Nuclei were homogenised in 0.25 M sucrose and the residual nuclear material obtained after centrifligation was adsorbed on calcium phosphate gel. After removing histone H1 from the adsorbed material by washing with 1M NaCl in 25 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 6.0, histones H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 were eluted together, with 2 M NaCl in 25 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0. The core histones so obtained migrated as a single sharp band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under non-denaturing conditions. Fractionation of the freshly prepared core histones on a Sephadex G-100 column yielded two major protein peaks. The peak having the larger elution volume contained histones H2A and H2B in equal amounts while the peak with the smaller elution volume contained all the four histones. Histones H3 and H4 were present in larger proportions in the second peak.

    • Studies on plant gums. Role of calcium in polysaccharide-protein interaction in the neem (Azadirachta indica) gum

      B Ramakrishna Nayak B C Shenoy T N Pattabiraman

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      The partial removal of tightly bound Ca2+ from dialysed neem (Azadirachta indica) gum, resulted in the release of a basic protein from a highly anionic polysaccharide-protein complex as evidenced by chromatographic studies on TEAE-cellulose. Complete removal of Ca2+ caused, in addition, the release of a minor heteropolysaccharide which was found in association with the basic protein. These processes were reversed on the addition of Ca2+. The gum, in addition, contained a protein-rich component accounting for 35% protein and 7.5% total carbohydrate. This component behaved as a distinct entity during ion-exchange chromatography of the native gum solutions, or which were either partially or completely depleted of bound Ca2+.

    • Distribution of acid and alkaline deoxyribonucleases in white and grey matter regions of growing and aging chick brain

      K Subba Rao K P Shrivastaw

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      The activities of acid and alkaline deoxyribonucleases in the white and grey matter areas of growing and old chick cerebrum were measured. Two marker enzymes for glial cells, butyrylcholinesterase and carbonic anhydrase were also measured in these regions. Higher specific activities of both butyrylcholinesterase and carbonic anhydrase were found in the white matter region at all the stages studied. Acid and alkaline deoxyribonuclease activities were observed in both white and grey matter. The decrease in the specific activity of acid deoxyribonuclease with advancement of age was more pronounced as compared to the alkaline deoxyribonuclease Marked reduction in total acid deoxyribonuclease activity in white matter, beyond the age of 130 days, was observed. On the other hand, total alkaline deoxyribonuclease activity in both white and grey matter continued to increase with age Further, the activity per mg of DNA also increased in white matter of the old brain. These results indirectly suggest a continued role for alkaline deoxyribonuclease in glial cells formed at a later age.

    • Effect of phospholipase-D on rat kidney mitochondria

      S N A Zaidi A C Shipstone N K Garg

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      Incubation of purified rat kidney mitochondrial fraction with phospholipase-D resulted in the accumulation of phosphatidic acid in the membrane due to the degradation of membrane-bound phosphatidylcholine, -serine and-ethanolamine Simultaneously with the hydrolysis of the phospholipids, cholesterol and protein were released from the mitochondrial membrane into the medium, and binding of Ca2+ by mitochondrial membranes increased. Phospholipase Dtreated mitochondrial fraction exhibited increased swellingin vitro in the early stages of incubation (15 min) after which the mitochondria were ruptured. Membrane-bound adenosine triphosphatase was partially inactivated and the enzyme activity was not significantly restored by incubation with sonicated dispersions of phosphatidylcholine,-serine and cholesterol. These results indicate that removal of choline, serine and ethanolamine from membrane-bound phospholipids disrupt phospholipid-cholesterol and phospholipid-protein association and affect functions of the membrane.

    • Alteration of the structure of theEscherichia coli ribosomes on treatment with Fab fragment of immunoglobulin raised against the ribosomes

      M Das D P Burma

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      Rabbits were immunised againstEscherichia coli ribosomes and the partially purified immunoglobulin G fraction had maximum ability to precipitate the ribosomes as well as the extracted ribosomal proteins. By digestion of immuno-globulin G with papain, monovalent Fab fragments were produced. The 70 S ribosome and its subunits (50 S and 30 S) were separately treated with Fab and then tested in the kinetic assay of degradation of ribosomes by ribonuclease I at various Mg2+ concentrations. Treated ribosomes and their subunits were degraded at faster rates than the nontreated ones; the rates in both the control and the treated cases were dependent on the concentration of Mg2+. These results indicate the unfolding of the structure of the ribosome on treatment with antibody fragments, which may be due to the weakening of the interaction between rRNAs and ribosomal proteins.

    • Inhibitory effect of penicillin on spore-specific functions inBacillus polymyxa 2459

      Anil K Goel Kunthala Jayaraman

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      Penicillin at concentrations non-inhibitory to the vegetative growth was found to inhibit sporulation inBacillus polymyxa 2459. The effect of penicillin was shown to be at the level of spore-specific mucopeptide synthesis. Penicillin had no effect on the early events such as DNA and protein synthesis in sporogenesis The sensitive period of inhibition was between T0 to T2 hours of sporulation.

    • Removal of radioactive strontium from the rat by feeding stable strontium

      S G Kshirsagar

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      The effect of administering the stable isotope of strontium (as phos-phate) at different dietary levels to adult rats (fed on a cereal and pulse-based diet containing 0.4% Ca) on the retention of radiostrontium (89Sr) and radiocalcium (45Ca) in the femur and the whole skeleton was studied for a period up to 6 weeks after an intraperitoneal injection of the two radioisotopes. The ability of strontium to remove89Sr under the above dietary conditions was examined. Feeding Sr at 0.5% or 1% levels for 6 weeks had no effect on the skeletal content of89Sr or45Ca while a dietary regimen of 2% Sr (2000 times the normal content), significantly lowered the89Sr and45Ca content by about 30% in the femur but not in the whole skeleton. At this Sr level, the urinary excretion of the isotopes increased with a concomitant decrease in their excretion in the faeces. This study underscores the limitations of dietary Sr to mobilise89Sr from the bones after it is incorporated in the bone mineral.

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