• Volume 29, Issue 2

      April 2006,   pages  101-200

    • Proton microbeam irradiation effects on PtBA polymer

      J Kamila S Roy K Bhattacharjee B Rout B N Dev R Guico J Wang A W Haberl P Ayyub P V Satyam

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      Proton beam lithography has made it possible to make various types of 3D-structures in polymers. Usually PMMA, SU-8, PS polymers have been used as resist materials for lithographic purpose. Microbeam irradiation effects on poly-tert-butyl-acrylate (PtBA) polymer using 2.0 MeV proton microbeam are reported. Preliminary results on pattern formation on PtBA are carried out as a function of fluence. After writing the pattern, a thin layer of Ge is deposited. Distribution of Ge in pristine and ion beam patterned surface of PtBA polymer is studied using the optical and secondary electron microscopic experimental methods.

    • Electron density distribution and bonding in ZnSe and PbSe using maximum entropy method (MEM)

      K S Syed Ali R Saravanan S Israel R K Rajaram

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      The study of electronic structure of materials and bonding is an important part of material characterization. The maximum entropy method (MEM) is a powerful tool for deriving accurate electron density distribution in crystalline materials using experimental data. In this paper, the attention is focused on producing electron density distribution of ZnSe and PbSe using JCPDS X-ray powder diffraction data. The covalent/ionic nature of the bonding and the interaction between the atoms are clearly revealed by the MEM maps. The mid bond electron densities between atoms in these systems are found to be 0.544 e/Å3 and 0.261 e/Å3, respectively for ZnSe and PbSe. The bonding in these two systems has been studied using two-dimensional MEM electron density maps on the (100) and (110) planes, and the one-dimensional electron density profiles along [100], [110] and [111] directions. The thermal parameters of the individual atoms have also been reported in this work. The algorithm of the MEM procedure has been presented.

    • Mechanochemically assisted room temperature solid state metathesis reaction for the synthesis of MMoO4 (M = Ca, Sr and Ba)

      Purnendu Parhi Satya Sadhan Singh Alok R Ray A Ramanan

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      This communication reports a novel mechanochemically assisted room temperature solid state metathesis reaction for the synthesis of submicron-size alkaline-earth molybdates crystallizing in a tetragonal Scheelite structure. The solids were characterized by powder XRD, FTIR, TGA, DTA, SEM, EDAX and TEM to ascertain their composition, phase homogeneity and morphology.

    • Thermoluminescence dosimetry of rare earth doped calcium aluminate phosphors

      K Madhukumar K Rajendra Babu K C Ajith Prasad J James T S Elias V Padmanabhan C M K Nair

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      The thermoluminescence (TL) properties of calcium aluminate (CaAl2O4) doped with different rare earth ions have been studied and their suitability for radiation dosimetry applications is discussed. It is observed that monocalcium aluminate doped with cerium is a good dosimeter having linear response up to about 4 kGy of radiation doses. Dopant concentration of 0.25 mol% cerium gives maximum TL emission. The well-defined single peak observed at 295°C can be advantageously used for high temperature dosimetry applications.

    • A coprecipitation technique to prepare NaNbO3 and NaTaO3

      V Samuel A B Gaikwad V Ravi

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      A simple coprecipitation technique has been used successfully for the preparation of pure, ultrafine, single phases of NaNbO3 (NN) and NaTaO3 (NT). An alcoholic solution of ammonium carbonate and ammonium hydroxide was used to precipitate Na+ and Nb5+ (or Ta5+) cations under basic conditions as carbonate and hydroxide, respectively. On heating at 700°C, these precursors produce respective products. For comparison, both NN and NT powders were also prepared by the traditional solid state method. The phase purity and lattice parameters were studied by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). The particle size and morphology were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

    • Effect of metalloids on crystallization and magnetic behaviour of FeCoSiB based metallic glass

      Ansu J Kailath Arvind Kumar Amitava Mitra

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      A series of amorphous iron–cobalt alloys with varying metalloid, boron and silicon contents were studied for their thermal stability and magnetic behaviour. The crystallization temperature and thermal stability increased with the silicon content. Good soft magnetic properties were observed for the materials with nominal composition, (Fe0.79Co0.21)77Si12.2B10.8. The magnetic properties were further improved by annealing.

    • Nanoclays for polymer nanocomposites, paints, inks, greases and cosmetics formulations, drug delivery vehicle and waste water treatment

      Hasmukh A Patel Rajesh S Somani Hari C Bajaj Raksh V Jasra

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      An overview of nanoclays or organically modified layered silicates (organoclays) is presented with emphasis placed on the use of nanoclays as the reinforcement phase in polymer matrices for preparation of polymer/layered silicates nanocomposites, rheological modifier for paints, inks and greases, drug delivery vehicle for controlled release of therapeutic agents, and nanoclays for industrial waste water as well as potable water treatment to make further step into green environment. A little amount of nanoclay can alter the entire properties of polymers, paints, inks and greases to a great extent by dispersing 1nm thick layered silicate throughout the matrices. The flexibility of interlayer spacing of layered silicates accommodates therapeutic agents which can later on be released to damaged cell. Because the release of drugs in drug-intercalated layered materials is controllable, these new materials have a great potential as a delivery host in the pharmaceutical field. The problem of clean water can be solved by treating industrial and municipal waste water with organoclays in combination with other sorbents like activated carbon and alum. Organoclays have proven to be superior to any other water treatment technology in applications where the water to be treated contains substantial amounts of oil and grease or humic acid.

    • Effect of heat treatment on tensile behaviour of Ti–6Al–5Zr–0.5Mo–0.25Si alloy

      Anil Kumar Nag K V U Praveen Vakil Singh

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      Tensile behaviour of the near 𝛼 titanium alloy, Ti–6Al–5Zr–0.5Mo–0.25Si (LT26A), was investigated in (𝛼+𝛽) as well as 𝛽 treated condition, over a wide range of temperature from RT to 823 K. It was observed that there were distinct serrations on the load-elongation curves of the 𝛼 + 𝛽 treated material at intermediate temperatures from 623 to 723 K. Tensile tests at 673 K over a wide range of strain rate from 0.052 to 5.60 (× 10-2) s-1 showed negative strain rate sensitivity. Thus, occurrence of DSA was confirmed. It was established from the measured activation energy for DSA that it was essentially controlled by diffusion of the solid solution strengthener silicon in the matrix.

    • Microstructural characterization in diffusion bonded TiC–Al2O3/Cr18–Ni8 joint with Ti interlayer

      Wang Juan Li Yajiang Yin Yansheng

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      Ceramic matrix composite, TiC–Al2O3, and stainless steel, Cr18–Ni8, were joined at 1400 K by solid state diffusion bonding, making use of a Ti foil acting as thermal stress relief interlayer. The microstructure of the joint was thus formed. The diffusion bonded TiC–Al2O3/Cr18–Ni8 joint was investigated by a variety of characterization techniques such as scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results indicate that Ti foil is fully fused to react with elements from substrates and Ti3Al, TiC and 𝛼-Ti are formed in the diffusion bonded TiC–Al2O3/Cr18–Ni8 joint. The interfacial shear strength is up to 99 MPa and the shear fracture occurs close to the ceramic matrix composite due to the application of Ti foil acting as thermal stress relief interlayer.

    • On the optical and electrical properties of rf and a.c. plasma polymerized aniline thin films

      U S Sajeev C Joseph Mathai S Saravanan Rajeev R Ashokan S Venkatachalam M R Anantharaman

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      Polyaniline is a widely studied conducting polymer and is a useful material in its bulk and thin film form for many applications, because of its excellent optical and electrical properties. Pristine and iodine doped polyaniline thin films were prepared by a.c. and rf plasma polymerization techniques separately for the comparison of their optical and electrical properties. Doping of iodine was effected in situ. The structural properties of these films were evaluated by FTIR spectroscopy and the optical band gap was estimated from UV-vis-NIR measurements. Comparative studies on the structural, optical and electrical properties of a.c. and rf polymerization are presented here. It has been found that the optical band gap of the polyaniline thin films prepared by rf and a.c. plasma polymerization techniques differ considerably and the band gap is further reduced by in situ doping of iodine. The electrical conductivity measurements on these films show a higher value of electrical conductivity in the case of rf plasma polymerized thin films when compared to the a.c. plasma polymerized films. Also, it is found that the iodine doping enhanced conductivity of the polymer thin films considerably. The results are compared and correlated and have been explained with respect to the different structures adopted under these two preparation techniques.

    • Characterization of nanocrystalline cadmium telluride thin films grown by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method

      A U Ubale R J Dhokne P S Chikhlikar V S Sangawar D K Kulkarni

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      Structural, electrical and optical characteristics of CdTe thin films prepared by a chemical deposition method, successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR), are described. For deposition of CdTe thin films, cadmium acetate was used as cationic and sodium tellurite as anionic precursor in aqueous medium. In this process hydrazine hydrate is used as reducing agent and NH4OH as the catalytic for the decomposition of hydrazine. By conducting several trials optimization of the adsorption, reaction and rinsing time duration for CdTe thin film deposition was done. In this paper the structural, optical and electrical properties of CdTe film are reported. The XRD pattern shows that films are nanocrystalline in nature. The resistivity is found to be of the order of 4.11 × 103 𝛺-cm at 523 K temperature with an activation energy of ∼ 0.2 eV. The optical absorption studies show that films have direct band gap (1.41 eV).

    • Synthesis of H2SO4 doped polyaniline film by potentiometric method

      P D Gaikwad D J Shirale V K Gade P A Savale H J Kharat K P Kakde S S Hussaini N R Dhumane M D Shirsat

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      H2SO4 doped polyaniline films were synthesized in aqueous acidic media. The polyaniline film deposited on platinum electrode exhibits highest conductivity. The conductivity of each H2SO4 doped polyaniline sample was determined by the four-probe technique. The current–voltage curve exhibits that polyaniline sample has an ohmic behaviour. Experiments were conducted to establish the conductivity of the sample from room temperature to 110°C. The current was set constant. It has been observed that at lower current as well as higher current conductivity of the polyaniline sample is due to the electrons transferred to the conduction band. It is observed that the concentration ratio of 0.2 : 1 of aniline and H2SO4 for synthesis of PANI film on platinum electrode shows good conductivity.

    • Synthesis and characterization of sodium alkoxides

      K Chandran R Nithya K Sankaran A Gopalan V Ganesan

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      Alcohol route is being adopted for cleaning sodium from sodium-wetted small components of coolant circuits of fast reactors. For better understanding of sodium–alcohol reactions and their energetics, the data on thermo-chemical properties such as heats of sodium–alcohol reactions, heats of dissolution, heat capacities, thermal decomposition behaviour, etc of their end products are essential. In order to generate such data, high purity sodium alkoxides, viz. sodium methoxide, sodium ethoxide and sodium 𝑛-propoxide, were prepared by reacting sodium metal with respective alcohol. These compounds were characterized using X-ray diffraction technique and IR spectroscopy. The elemental analysis was carried out by CHNS analyser and atomic emission spectroscopy. Normal chain sodium alkoxides were found to exhibit tetragonal crystal structure. Crystal structures of sodium ethoxide and sodium 𝑛-propoxide are reported for the first time. The IR spectrum of sodium 𝑛-propoxide is also reported for the first time.

    • Dielectric measurements on PWB materials at microwave frequencies

      A Tanwar K K Gupta P J Singh Y K Vijay

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      In quest of finding new substrate for printed wiring board (PWB) having low dielectric constant, we have made PSF/PMMA blends and evaluated the dielectric parameters at 8.92 GHz frequency and at 35°C temperature. Incorporating PMMA in PSF matrix results in reduced dielectric constant than that of pure PSF. The dielectric parameters of pure PMMA and PSF films of different thicknesses have also been obtained at microwave frequencies. We have used dielectric data at microwave frequencies as a tool to evaluate optical constants, absorption index `𝐾’ and refractive index `𝑛’. The blends of PSF/PMMA may be used as base materials for PWBs.

    • Structural and electrical properties of swift heavy ion beam irradiated Co/Si interface

      Garima Agarwal Ankur Jain Shivani Agarwal D Kabiraj I P Jain

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      Synthesis of swift heavy ion induced metal silicide is a new advancement in materials science research. We have investigated the mixing at Co/Si interface by swift heavy ion beam induced irradiation in the electronic stopping power regime. Irradiations were undertaken at room temperature using 120 MeV Au ions at the Co/Si interface for investigation of ion beam mixing at various doses: 8 × 1012, 5 × 1013 and 1 × 1014 cm-2. Formation of different phases of cobalt silicide is identified by the grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) technique, which shows enhancement of intermixing and silicide formation as a result of irradiation. 𝐼–𝑉 characteristics at Co/Si interface were undertaken to understand the irradiation effect on conduction mechanism at the interface.

    • Investigations on gradient a.c. conductivity characteristics of bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus)

      Navin Chand Deepak Jain Archana Nigrawal

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      Effect of temperature and frequency variation on a.c. conductivity of bamboo was determined by using a 4274 A Multi-Frequencies LCR meter. Electrical measurements were carried out in the temperature range 24–120°C and in the frequency range 4–100 kHz. It was observed that the a.c. conductivity increased initially and then decreased with increase of temperature and frequencies. The increase of distance from outer surface to the inner surface side increased the a.c. conductivity values and showed the grading in a.c. conductivity behaviour. Two phases of a.c. conductivity behaviour with temperature exist in bamboo. At 10 mm distance a.c. conductivity suddenly increases which is the critical depth from skin for this bamboo. Increase of temperature, at all the frequencies increases the a.c. conductivity initially and then decreases. Downward peaks in a.c. conductivities are observed at all the frequencies due to the presence of moisture in bamboo, which liberated on heating. Sharp peak is observed in case of sample 4, which is inner most strip. Maximum sharp peak is observed at lowest 4 kHz frequency.

    • Mechanism of cube grain nucleation during recrystallization of deformed commercial purity aluminium

      K T Kashyap R George

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      Cube texture is a sharp recrystallization texture component in fcc metals like aluminium, copper, etc. It is described by an ideal orientation i.e. (100) $\langle 100 \rangle$. The subject of cube texture nucleation i.e. cube grain nucleation, from the deformed state of aluminium and copper is of scientific curiosity with concurrent technological implications. There are essentially two models currently in dispute over the mechanism of cube grain nucleation i.e. the differential stored energy model founded on the hypothesis proposed by Ridha and Hutchinson and the micro-growth selection model of Duggan et al. In this paper, calculations are made on the proposal of Ridha and Hutchinson model and the results are obtained in favour of the differential stored energy model. It is also shown that there is no need for the micro-growth model.

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