• Issue front cover thumbnail

      Volume 23, Issue 3

      June 2000,   pages  159-238

    • A note on the use of ellipsometry for studying the kinetics of formation of self-assembled monolayers

      Murali Sastry

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      Ellipsometry is currently one of the most important techniques for characterization of the deposition and growth mode of ultra thin organic films. However, it is well known that for thicknesses normally encountered in organic monolayer films, as would occur for example in self-assembled monolayers, ellipsometry cannot be used to simultaneously determine the thickness and refractive index of the monolayer film. Current practice is to assume a reasonable value for the film refractive index and calculate an effective ‘ellipsometric thickness’. This communication seeks to show that the alternative approach of assuming a thickness for the monolayer (determined by the length of the molecule) and calculating the effective film refractive index lends itself to easier and more meaningful physical interpretation. The Lorentz-Lorenz formula is then used to transform the effective refractive index into a surface coverage and hence to an effective mass coverage. The methodology advanced is applied to the kinetics of formation of a self-assembled monolayer of a well-studied molecule, octadecanethiol on Au.

    • Study of interaction of ethylene glycol/PVP phase on noble metal powders prepared by polyol process

      F Bonet K Tekaia-Elhsissen K Vijaya Sarathy

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      Noble metal powders (Au, Ag, Pt, Pd and Ru) have been synthesized by the polyol process in both the nanometer and submicron scales (sans Pd, Pt and Ru). They have been characterized by both microscopic (TEM and SEM) as well as spectroscopic techniques (FT-IR and XPS). Infrared spectroscopy was employed to study the colloid particles in the presence of ethylene glycol and PVP and the results show that the interaction between the organic phase and the metal particles vary according to the particle size. The role of the solvent, ethylene glycol, during the reduction process was also investigated and we observe formation of >C=O vibration band after the reduction process implying that the solvent reduces the metal ions thereby getting oxidized. XPS measurements carried out on the colloidal sols have shown the presence of the organic phase adsorbed onto the metal particles.

    • La0.9Sr0.1Ga0.8M0.2O3-δ (M = Mn, Co, Ni, Cu or Zn): Transition metal-substituted derivatives of lanthanum-strontium-galliummagnesium (LSGM) perovskite oxide ion conductor

      Litty Sebastian A K Shukla J Gopalakrishnan

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      Perovskite oxides of the general formula, La0.9Sr0.1Ga0.8M0.2O3-δ for M = Mn, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn, have been prepared and investigated. All the oxides exhibit high electrical conductivities (σ R∼ 10−2 S/cm at 800°C) comparable to that of the best perovskite oxide ion conductor, La0.9Sr0.1Ga0.8Mg0.2O2.85 (LSGM) (σ ∼ 8 × 10−2 S/cm at 800°C). While M = Mn, Co, Ni, Cu members appear to be mixed conductors with a variable electronic contribution to the conductivity, especially at high oxygen partial pressures (pO2 ≥1 atm), arising from mixed-valency of the transition metals, the M = Zn(II) phase is a pure oxide ion conductor exhibiting a conductivity (σ ∼ 1.5 × 10−2 S/cm at 800°C) that is slightly lower than that of LSGM. The lower conductivity of the M = Zn(II) derivative could be due to the preference of Zn(II) for a tetrahedral oxygen coordination.

    • Synthesis and structural characterization of Na2MnP2O7 crystal

      N K Lokanath M A Sridhar J ShashidharA Prasad G S Gopalakrishna K G Ashamanjari

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      Na2MnP2O7 crystals were synthesized by hydrothermal technique. Crystals obtained are in the form of single crystals of rhombohedral morphology with lattice parameters as follows: triclinic, P 1, π = 0-71069 Å, a = 6.657(3) Å, b = 6.714(6) Å, c = 6.518(4) Å, α = 112.31(6)°, β = 92.14(4)°, γ = 83.89(5)°, V = 268.0(3) Å3, Z = 2, ρcal = 2, 3.121 g/cm3, μ = 3.121 mm-1, F000 = 244, goodness-of-fit on F = 1.348, final R indices with [I > 3σ(I)]R = 0051 and ωR = 0.065.

    • Study of lithium glassy solid electrolyte/electrode interface by impedance analysis

      A Karthikeyan P Vinatier A Levasseur

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      Cells of lithium ion conducting glassy electrolyte Li2SO4-Li2O-B2O3 with different combinations of electrodes (stainless steel blocking electrode, lithium non-blocking electrode and TiS2 electrode) have been prepared. The a.c. impedance measurements of the cells have been studied at elevated temperature as a function of time. The circuit elements such as bulk resistance, double layer capacitance and charge transfer resistance have been inferred and their time dependence studied. The results show that the electrolyte and the interface are chemically very stable with the different types of electrodes studied here.

    • Nucleation and growth of a multicomponent metallic glass

      Arun Pratap K G Raval Ajay Gupta S K Kulkarni

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      The metallic glass samples of Fe67Co18B14Si1 (2605CO), prepared by the melt spinning technique were procured from the Allied Corporation. The kinetics of crystallization of this multicomponent glassy alloy is studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The crystallization data have been examined in terms of modified Kissinger and Matusita equations for the nonisothermal crystallization. The results show enhanced bulk nucleation in general. At high heating rates added to it is surface induced abnormal grain growth resulting in fractal dimensionality.

    • Effect of alloy elements on the anticorrosion properties of low alloy steel

      Baorong Hou Yantao Li Yanxu Li Jinglei Zhang

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      Effect of alloy elements on corrosion of low alloy steel was studied under simulated offshore conditions. The results showed that the elements Cu, P, Mo, W, V had evident effect on corrosion resistance in the atmosphere zone; Cu, P, V, Mo in the splash zone and Cr, Al, Mo in the submerged zone.

    • A study on fatigue crack growth in dual phase martensitic steel in air environment

      K V Sudhakar E S Dwarakadasa

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      Dual phase (DP) steel was intercritically annealed at different temperatures from fully martensitic state to achieve martensite plus ferrite, microstructures with martensite contents in the range of 32 to 76%. Fatigue crack growth (FCG) and fracture toughness tests were carried out as per ASTM standards E 647 and E 399, respectively to evaluate the potential of DP steels. The crack growth rates (da/dN) at different stress intensity ranges (ΔK) were determined to obtain the threshold value of stress intensity range (ΔKth). Crack path morphology was studied to determine the influence of microstructure on crack growth characteristics. After the examination of crack tortuosity, the compact tension (CT) specimens were pulled in static mode to determine fracture toughness values. FCG rates decreased and threshold values increased with increase in vol.% martensite in the DP steel. This is attributed to the lower carbon content in the martensite formed at higher intercritical annealing (ICA) temperatures, causing retardation of crack growth rate by crack tip blunting and/or deflection. Roughness induced crack closure was also found to contribute to the improved crack growth resistance at higher levels of martensite content. Scanning electron fractography of DP steel in the near threshold region revealed transgranular cleavage fracture with secondary cracking. Results indicate the possibility that the DP steels may be treated to obtain an excellent combination of strength and fatigue properties.

    • Helium implantedAlHf as studied by181Ta TDPAC

      R Govindaraj K P Gopinathan B Viswanathan

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      Time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) measurement onAlHf reference sample has shown that a fraction 0.88 of probe nuclei are defect free and are occupying the substitutional sites in fcc Al matrix, and the remaining are associated with Hf solute clusters. Measurements on helium implanted sample indicate the binding of helium associated defects by Hf solute clusters. Isochronal annealing measurements indicate the dissociation of the helium implantation induced defects from Hf solute clusters for annealing treatments beyond 650 K. On comparison of the present results with that reported inCuHf subjected to identical helium implantation, it is inferred that the Hf solute clusters inAlHf bind less strongly the helium associated defects than inCuHf.

    • Optimization of growth of InGaAs/InP quantum wells using photoluminescence and secondary ion mass spectrometry

      S Bhunia P Banerji T K Chaudhuri A R Haldar D N Bose Y Aparna M B Chettri B R Chakraborty

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      InGaAs/InP quantum wells of widths varying from 19 Å to 150 Å have been grown by MOVPE and the growth temperature optimized using photoluminescence and SIMS. It was thus found that for a 78 Å well the lowest PL linewidth of 12.7 meV at 12 K was obtained for growth at 625°C. SIMS also showed sharpest interfaces for this temperature compared with growth at 610°C and 640°C. The well widths determined from PL energies were in good agreement with a growth rate of 8.25 Å/s. However, while the barrier widths of 150 Å were in agreement with SIMS results, the well widths from SIMS were found to be much larger, due to a lower sputtering rate of InGaAs compared with InP. Quantitative comparison was made assuming the presence of InAsP and InGaAsP interface layers on either side of the wells and the relative sputtering rates determined.

    • Effect of penetrants on the aramid Nomex

      Anjana Jain Kalyani Vijayan

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      The response of Nomex sheets to some penetrants has been analyzed. The process of moisture uptake depends on the relative humidity (RH) of the ambient atmosphere and the initial characteristics of the polymer. In the case of common laboratory solvents,the uptake by the polymer shows an inverse dependence on the molar volume of the former. Although the calendered and the uncalendered Nomex sheets exhibit an overall similarity in their response to various penetrants,quantitative comparison reveals distinct differences.

    • Studies on poly (hydroxy alkanoates)/(ethylcellulose) blends

      Vaishali Suthar Arun Pratap Heta Raval

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      Biodegradable polymers represent one of the most significant area of research today. Among these polymers, poly (β-hydroxy butyrate co β′-hydroxy valerate) i.e. PHBV have received special attention because of their unique combination of properties. They are perfectly biocompatible, biodegradable polymers and can be processed by any conventional technique. In the present study an attempt has been made to develop the biodegradable blends of PHBV by blending them with ethyl cellulose (EC). Ethyl cellulose has been selected to monitor the biodegradation rate of PHBV and also for making the blends cost effective. The blends are thoroughly characterized for their compatibility, by the measurement of viscosity of blends and through FT-IR. Various applications of PHBV/EC blend in agriculture and pharmaceutical industries are being explored.

    • Sintering of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene

      Sangeeta Hambir J P Jog

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      Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a high performance polymer having low coefficient of friction, good abrasion resistance, good chemical resistance etc. It is used in shipbuilding, textile industries and also in biomedical applications. UHMWPE is processed by powder processing technique because of its high melt viscosity at the processing temperature. Powder processing technique involves compaction of polymeric powder under pressure and sintering of the preforms at temperature above its melting point. In this study, we report our results on compaction and sintering behaviour of two grades of UHMWPE with reference to the powder morphology, sintering temperatures and strength development.

    • Low frequency ac conduction and dielectric relaxation in poly(N-methyl pyrrole)

      Amarjeet K Narula Ramadhar Singh Subhas Chandra

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      The ac conductivity and dielectric constant of poly(N-methyl pyrrole) thin films have been investigated in the temperature range 77–350 K and in the frequency range 102-102 Hz. The well defined loss peaks have been observed in the temperature region where measured ac conductivity approaches dc conductivity. These loss peaks are associated with the hopping of the charge carriers. The frequency and temperature dependence of ac conductivity have been qualitatively explained by considering the contribution from two mechanisms; one giving a linear dependence of conductivity on frequency and other having distribution of relaxation times giving rise to broad dielectric loss peak.

    • Effect of pressure on the phonon properties of europium chalcogenides

      U K Sakalle P K Jha S P Sanyal

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      Lattice vibrational properties of europium chalcogenides have been investigated at high pressure by using a simple lattice dynamical model theory viz. the three-body force rigid ion model (TRIM) which includes long range three-body interaction arising due to charge transfer effects. The dispersion curves for the four Eu-chalcogenides agree reasonably well with the available experimental data. Variation of LO, TO, LA and TA phonons with pressure have also been studied at the symmetry points of the brillouin zone (BZ) for Euchalcogenides for the first time by using a lattice dynamical model theory. We have also calculated the one phonon density of states and compared them with the first order Raman scattering results. The calculation of one phonon density of states for Eu-chalcogenides has also been extended up to the phase transition pressure. We observed a pronounced shift in phonon spectrum as pressure is increased.

    • Azomesogens with a heterocyclic moiety

      Jayrang S Dave Meera Menon

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      Azobenzene derivatives were among the first ten liquid crystalline compounds. But there have been no detailed investigations on azomesogens consisting of a heterocyclic moiety. Twelve different azo compounds have been condensed with nicotinic acid to evaluate the effect of variation of terminal group on the monosubstituted pyridine system. The relative thermal stabilities and the variation in the mesomorphic characteristics have also been studied.

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