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      Volume 23, Issue 2

      April 2000,   pages  73-158

    • Microstructural features induced by spray forming of a ternary Pb-Sn-Sb alloy

      V C Srivastava Anish Upadhyaya S N Ojha

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      An alloy containing Pb-12% Sn-12% Sb with small addition of copper and arsenic was spray deposited employing two different atomization gas pressure and nozzle to substrate distances. The temperature of the spray-deposit was measured during deposition at a distance of 2 and 10 mm above the substrate-deposit interface. Thermal profile data indicated small variation in temperature with time during deposition stage whereas during post deposition stage an exponential decrease in temperature was recorded. Second phase particle size along the thickness of the deposit varied from 4 to 8 μm compared to 70 to 80 μm size of these particles in the as cast alloy. Maximum porosity occurred in the section of the deposit near the contact surface of the substrate and also in its peripheral regions. X-ray diffraction analysis exhibited the formation of additional Cu2Sb phase in the spray-deposit and CuSn and Cu3.3Sb phases in atomized powders compared to that of the as cast alloy. The microstructural evolution during spray deposition of this alloy is discussed.

    • Investigations on nucleation thermodynamical parameters of NdBa2Cu3O7-δ (Nd123) crystallization by high temperature solution growth

      D P Paul R Jayavel C Subramanian P Ramasamy

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      Investigations on nucleation thermodynamical parameters are very essential for the successful growth of good quality single crystals from high temperature solution. A theoretical estimation of the nucleation thermodynamical parameters like interfacial energy between the solid Nd123 and its flux BaO-CuO, metastable zone-width, Gibbs free energy, critical energy barrier for nucleation and critical nucleation radius have been calculated from the knowledge of solubility data and by applying the classical nucleation theory. Results are discussed to understand the growth kinetics of Nd123 crystals.

    • Cadmium substituted high permeability lithium ferrite

      S S Bellad S C Watawe A M Shaikh B K Chougule

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      Polycrystalline Li0.5-x/2CdxFe2.5-x/22O4 ferrites wherex = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 were prepared by a double sintering ceramic technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The lattice parameter is found to increase monotonically with the cadmium content. It is explained in terms of the sizes of component ions. The grain size of the samples increases up tox = 0.3 and then it decreases for higher values ofx. A similar trend is observed in the variation of Ms with Cd2+ content. The initial permeability (μi) is however found to increase continuously withx. The increase in μi is attributed to decrease of anisotropy constant K1 and higher grain size of the samples.

    • Influence of Nd3+ substitution on thermoelectric power of Zn-Mg ferrite system

      B P Ladgaonkar P N Vasambekar A S Vaingankar

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      Polycrystalline ferrites, ZnxMg1−xFe2−yNdyO4 (x = 0.00, 0.20, 0.40, 0.60, 0.80 and 1.00;y = 0.00, 0.05 and 0.10) were prepared by standard ceramic method. X-ray diffraction study of these compositions revealed the formation of single phase spinels. Seebeck coefficient was obtained from thermo emf measurement by keeping constant temperature difference of 10 K across the pellet. The values of Seebeck coefficient were found to be negative showing majority charge carriers ofn-type, suggesting the mechanism of conduction to be predominantly by electron hopping. The substitution of Nd3+ ion, which perhaps resides at the B-site, resulting in a decrease in the Seebeck coefficient. This decrease was assigned to the decrease of population of Fe3+ ion at the B-site. The activation energies calculated both from mobility plots and from dc resistivity plots were found comparable. The Fermi energy,EF(0), which was estimated by intrapolation ofEF-T curves toT = 0 K, was found less than the activation energy. This difference was attributed to electron hopping energy.

    • Magnetocaloric effect in temperature-sensitive magnetic fluids

      Kinnari Parekh R V Upadhyay R V Mehta

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      The magnetocaloric properties of three different temperature-sensitive magnetic fluids were studied. The pyromagnetic coefficient for all the materials were obtained and it was found that this property depends on physical and magnetic properties like size, magnetization and Curie temperature. A theoretical model was developed to explain the behaviour of change in entropy with temperature.

    • Comparison of the irreversible thermomagnetic behaviour of some ferro- and ferrimagnetic systems

      P S Anil Kumar P A Joy S K Date

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      The magnetic behaviour of two ferromagnetic oxides and two ferrimagnetic oxides (ferrites) are compared to study the effect of magnetocrystalline anisotropy on thermal-history-dependence of magnetization of these ordered magnetic systems. All four compounds show thermomagnetic irreversibility (MFC >MZFC) below a certain temperature,Tirr. The highly anisotropic ferromagnetic oxide, SrRuO3 and the hard ferrite, SrFe12O19 show sharp peaks belowTc in theirMZFC(T) curves, whereas for the soft ferrite Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 and the low anisotropic ferromagnetic oxide La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 only a broad maximum is observed inMZFC, when measured in small magnetic fields. The shapes of theMZFC(T) curves are inversely-related to the magnitude of the coercivities (Hc) of the compounds in relation to the applied field, and the temperature dependence of Hc.MFC andMZFC are related through the coercivity for all four magnetic systems.

    • Development, structure and strength properties of PP/PMMA/FA blends

      Navin Chand S R Vashishtha

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      A new type of flyash filled PP/PMMA blend has been developed. Structural and thermal properties of flyash (FA) filled polypropylene (PP)/polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) blend system have been determined and analysed. Filled polymer blends were developed on a single screw extruder. Strength and thermal properties of FA filled and unfilled PP/PMMA blends were determined. Addition of flyash imparted dimensional and thermal stability, which has been observed in scanning electron micrographs and in TGA plot. Increase of flyash concentration increased the initial degradation temperature of PP/PMMA blend. The increase of thermal stability has been explained based on increased mechanical interlocking of PP/PMMA chains inside the hollow structure of flyash.

    • Optimization of processing parameters for making alumina-partially stabilized zirconia laminated composites

      S Deb B V Radhakrishna Bhat

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      The aim of the work was to optimize the processing parameters for fabricating laminated ceramic composites of Al2O3–Y–PSZ. Composites of different layer thicknesses, starting from 2 mm and going down up to 0·3 mm, were made by hot-pressing. The different types of cracks originating in the composite were studied in detail and the reason behind their formation analysed. The observed main reasons for crack formation were: (i) differential shrinkage in between the co-sintering layers due to their different sintering kinetics, (ii) thermal expansion mismatch, and (iii) a tensile component of the residual stress in the layer under residual compressive stress. After this defect analysis, suitable remedial measures were taken to avoid the crack formation. And finally a laminated composite with fifteen layers of 0.3 mm thickness was made successfully.

    • An algorithm for generating quasiperiodic patterns and their approximants

      E A Lord K Ramakrishnan S Ranganathan

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      An algorithm for projecting the interior of a hypercube inN-dimensions on to anm-dimensional subspace has been developed and incorporated into a computer program for generating quasiperiodic and periodic patterns in ann-dimensional subspace. Some aspects of the resulting orthorhombic approximants to Penrose tiling patterns are discussed and illustrated.

    • Application of design of experiment on electrophoretic deposition of glass-ceramic coating materials from an aqueous bath

      Someswar Datta

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      A process for application of abrasion- or corrosion-resistant glass-ceramic coating materials on metal substrate by electrophoretic deposition technique in an aqueous medium has been described. The effects of various process parameters, e.g. coating material concentration, time of deposition, applied current, pH of the suspension and concentration of the polymeric dispersant on the deposition efficiency have been studied. The process has been studied using a 23-factorial design technique of three independent variables; i.e. coating material concentration, applied current, and the time taken to achieve the best combination. The regression equation obtained explains the experimental results satisfactorily.

    • A combined optical, SEM and STM study of growth spirals on the polytypic cadmium iodide crystal

      Rajendra Singh S B Samanta A V Narlikar G C Trigunayat

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      Some novel results of a combined sequential study of growth spirals on the basal surface of the richly polytypic CdI2 crystals by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) are presented and discussed. In confirmation of the known structural data, the STM pictures clearly reveal the value of unit cella(= b) dimension to be equal to 0.428 nm a and the value of the interaxial angle γ to be equal to 120°. Under the high resolution and magnification achieved in the scanning electron microscope, the growth steps of large heights seen in the optical micrographs are found to have a large number of additional steps of smaller heights existing between any two adjacent large height growth steps. When further seen by a scanning tunneling microscope, which provides still higher resolution, several unit substeps are seen to exist between two consecutive additional steps. The height of each substep is found to be equal to the unit cell height of the underlying polytype. The height of the larger additional steps are found to be integral multiple of the unit cell height. The horizontal distance between two consecutive growth steps is found to be an integral multiple of the lattice parametera. The interspacing of the growth steps of same step height is found to vary at different positions on the same crystal face.

    • On the development of an apatitic calcium phosphate bone cement

      Manoj Komath H K Varma R Sivakumar

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      Development of an apatitic calcium phosphate bone cement is reported. 100 μ Particles of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) were mixed in equimolar ratio to form the cement powder. The wetting medium used was distilled water with Na2HPO4 as accelerator to manipulate the setting time. The cement powder, on wetting with the medium, formed a workable putty. The setting times of the putty were measured using a Vicat type apparatus and the compressive strength was determined with a Universal Testing Machine. The nature of the precipitated cement was analyzed through X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and energy dispersive electron microprobe (EDAX). The results showed the phase to be apatitic with a calcium-to-phosphorous ratio close to that of hydroxyapatite. The microstructure analysis using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed hydroxyapatite nano-crystallite growth over particulate matrix surface. The structure has an apparent porosity of ∼ 52%. There were no appreciable dimensional or thermal changes during setting. The cement passed the in vitro toxicological screening (cytotoxicity and haemolysis) tests. Optimization of the cement was done by manipulating the accelerator concentration so that the setting time, hardening time and the compressive strength had clinically relevant values.

    • Thermal behaviour of hydroxides, hydroxysalts and hydrotalcites

      Parthasarathi Bera Michael Rajamathi M S Hegde P Vishnu Kamath

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      Mass spectrometric analysis of gases evolved during thermal decomposition of divalent metal hydroxides, hydroxysalts and hydrotalcites show that all these compounds undergo dehydration in the temperature range 30 <T < 220°C followed by decomposition at temperatures above 250°C. The latter step involves simultaneous deanation and dehydroxylation of the layers. Our observations conclusively prove that alternative mechanisms which envisage CO2 evolution due to deanation at lower temperatures proposed by Kanezaki to be wrong.

    • Systematic hardness studies on lithium niobate crystals

      K G Subhadra K Kishan Rao D B Sirdeshmukh

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      In view of discrepancies in the available information on the hardness of lithium niobate, a systematic study of the hardness has been carried out. Measurements have been made on two pure lithium niobate crystals with different growth origins, and a Fe-doped sample. The problem of load variation of hardness is examined in detail. The true hardness of LiNbO3 is found to be 630 ± 30 kg/mm2. The Fe-doped crystal has a larger hardness of 750 ± 50 kg/mm2.

    • A CCD area detector for X-ray diffraction under high pressure for rotating anode source

      Amar Sinha Alka B Garg V Vijayakumar B K Godwal S K Sikka

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      Details of a two-dimensional X-ray area detector developed using a charge coupled device, a image intensifier and a fibre optic taper are given. The detector system is especially optimized for angle dispersive X-ray diffraction set up using rotating anode generator as X-ray source. The performance of this detector was tested by successfully carrying out powder X-ray diffraction measurements on various materials such as intermetallics AuIn2, AuGa2, high Z material Pd and low Z scatterer adamantane (C10H16) at ambient conditions. Its utility for quick detection of phase transitions at high pressures with diamond anvil cell is demonstrated by reproducing the known pressure induced structural transitions in RbI, KI and a new structural phase transition in AuGa2 above 10 GPa. Various softwares have also been developed to analyze data from this detector.

    • Radiation dosimetry by potassium feldspar

      Arun Pandya S G Vaijapurkar P K Bhatnagar

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      The thermoluminescence (TL) properties of raw and annealed feldspar have been studied for their use in gamma dosimetry. The raw gamma exposed feldspar shows glow peaks at 120°C and 319°C. Gamma dose beyond 500 cGy can be measured without any significant fading even after 40 days of termination of exposure. The annealed feldspar shows a glow peak at 120°C after gamma exposure. This peak can be used to measure gamma doses beyond 25 cGy when the TL is measured after 24 h from termination of exposure.

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