• Issue front cover thumbnail

      Volume 23, Issue 1

      February 2000,   pages  1-72

    • Sol-gel processing of carbidic glasses

      L M Manocha E Yasuda Y Tanabe S Manocha D Vashistha

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      Carbon incorporation into the silicate network results in the formation of rigid carbidic glasses with improved physical, mechanical and thermal properties. This generated great interest in the development of these heteroatom structured materials through different processing routes. In the present studies, sol-gel processing has been used to prepare silicon based glasses, especially oxycarbides through organic-inorganic hybrid gels by hydrolysis-condensation reactions in silicon alkoxides, 1,4-butanediol and furfuryl alcohol with an aim to introduce Si-C linkages in the precursors at sol level. The incorporation of these linkages has been studied using IR and NMR spectroscopy. These bonds, so introduced, are maintained throughout the processing, especially during pyrolysis to high temperatures. In FFA-TEOS system, copolymerization with optimized mol ratio of the two results in resinous mass. This precursor on pyrolysis to 1000°C results in Si-O-C type amorphous solid black mass. XRD studies on the materials heated to 1400°C exhibit presence of crystalline Si-C and cristobalites in amorphous Si-O-C mass. In organic-inorganic gel system, the pyrolysed mass exhibits phase stability up to much higher temperatures. The carbidic materials so produced have been found to exhibit good resistance against oxidation at 1000°C.

    • Collective modes in Ca70Mg30 glass

      B Y Thakore P N Gajjar A R Jani

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      The self-consistent phonon scheme given by Takeno and Goda, involving multiple scattering and phonon eigen frequencies which are expressed in terms of many-body correlation functions of atoms as well as of interatomic potential in the solids, has been used to generate the collective modes in the Ca70Mg30 glass. A model potential is proposed to describe the effective interaction in the glass. Three different forms of the local field correction functions viz. Hartree, Taylor and Ichimaru and Utsumi are used to examine relative influence of exchange and correlation effects. The phonon frequencies of the longitudinal and transverse modes are computed employing the theoretical formulation of Hubbard and Beeby. The elastic property of the glassy system is then studied using the long wavelength limits of the phonon modes. The theoretical computations reproduce much better dispersion curves (both for the longitudinal and transverse phonons) compared to earlier reports and are found to be in good agreement with the available experimental results due to neutron scattering.

    • Synthesis and magnetic properties of one-dimensional metal oxalate networks as molecular-based magnets

      B P Singh B Singh

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      The homo- and heteropolymetallic assemblies of MM′(OX)2(H2O)4, where MM′ represents MnMn, CoMn, NiMn, CuMn, CoCo, NiCo, CuCo, NiNi, CuNi, and CuCu; and the respective complexes, numbered 1–10, have been prepared by reacting metal(II) salts-i.e. of Mn, Co, Ni, and Cu- and potassium oxalate monohydrate in hot water (90–100°C). The magnetic susceptibility data of the complexes 8 and 9 in the 300 K-20 K temperature range obeys the Curie-Weiss law and exhibits Weiss constants -50 K and -100 K, respectively. On lowering the temperature, the effective magnetic moment decreases gradually and is indicative of antiferromagnetic phase transition. The complexes have also been characterized by ES mass spectrometry, infrared (IR), electronic, and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra.

    • Dielectric properties of solution-grown-undoped and acrylic-acid-doped ethyl cellulose

      P K Khare Sandeep K Jain

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      Dielectric capacities and losses were measured, in the temperature (50–170°C) and frequency (01–100 kHz range), for undoped and acrylic acid (AA) doped ethyl cellulose (EC) films (thickness about 20 μm) with progressive increase in the concentration of dopant in the polymer matrix. The variation of capacity with temperature is attributed to thermal expansion in the lower temperature region to the orientation of dipolar molecules in the neighbourhood of glass transition temperature (Tg) and random thermal motion of molecules aboveTg. The dielectric losses exhibit a broad peak. Doping with AA is found to affect the magnitude and position of the peak. AA is found to have a two-fold action. Firstly, it enhances the chain mobility and secondly, it increases the dielectric loss by forming charge transfer complexes.

    • An instrument for online measurement of structural orientation in translucent polymer sheets

      P K Palanisamy D Mangaiyarkarasi A Ramalingam

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      In many applications of polymer materials, a high tensile strength is required. There is a definite correlation between the degree of orientation of molecular chains achieved in the orientation process and the tensile strength obtained. In this work, we describe design and fabrication details of a device, ‘Laser based polymer orientation grader’, for online measurement of the degree of orientation to obtain a high consistent tensile strength as output. This instrument has been designed making skilful use of the optical anisotropic property of the oriented polymer strip. The principle is based on the fact that the spatial distribution of laser light passing through the translucent polymer sheet depends on the degree of orientation of long chain molecules in the sheet. The method has potential online application in monitoring and controlling of anisotropy in manufacturing processes.

    • Characterization of plasticized PMMA-LiBF4 based solid polymer electrolytes

      S Rajendran T Uma

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      Polymer electrolyte films prepared from poly(methyl methacrylate) and LiBF4 with different concentrations of plasticizer (DBP) are described. The formation of polymer-salt complex has been confirmed by FTIR spectral studies. The temperature dependence of conductivity of polymer films seems to obey the VTF relation. Values of conductivities of the polymer complexes are presented and discussed.

    • Effect of ZrO2 on conductivity of PVC-PMMA-LiBF4-DBP polymer electrolytes

      S Rajendran T Uma

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      The preparation and characterization of composite polymer electrolytes of PVC-PMMA-LiBF4-DBP for different concentrations of ZrO2 have been investigated. FTIR studies indicate complex formation between the polymers, salt and plasticizer. The electrical conductivity values measured by a.c. impedance spectroscopy is found to depend upon the ZrO2 concentration. The temperature dependence of the conductivity of the polymer films seems to obey the VTF relation. The conductivity values are presented and results discussed.

    • Impact toughness of ternary Al-Zn-Mg alloys in as cast and homogenized condition measured in the temperature range 263–673 K

      Harish Kundar Krishna K Srinivasan

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      Impact toughness of six Al-Zn-Mg ternary alloys are compared with two Al-Zn binary alloys and one CP aluminium metal at eight different temperatures of 263, 268, 273, 300, 373, 473, 573 and 673 K. The effects of alloying and temperature on toughness have been compared and analysed. The influence of alloying is more pronounced than that of temperature in reducing the toughness.

    • Role of diffusional coherency strain theory in the discontinuous precipitation in Mg-Al alloy

      K T Kashyap C Ramachandra M Sujatha B Chatterji

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      Discontinuous precipitation (DP) occurs in many alloy systems under certain conditions. It is called discontinuous precipitation because precipitation occurs on prior matrix grain boundaries followed by grain boundary movement. The DP nodule consists of alternate lamellae of the precipitate and the matrix respectively. The chemical driving force for DP is one of solute supersaturation. Although solute supersaturation is responsible for precipitation, it has to be coupled with another driving force to explain grain boundary migration. This coupling driving force has been identified to be diffusional coherency strain which has been verified to be active in diffusion induced grain boundary migration and liquid film migration.

      To test diffusional coherency strain theory for discontinuous precipitation Mg-7Al and Mg-7Al-1Pb alloys were studied. While the fraction transformed was high at 6% in Mg-7Al alloy, dit was significantly low at 2% in Mg-7Al-1Pb alloy. The velocity of DP nodules decreased by half in alloy with Pb as compared to the alloy without Pb. Theoretical calculations also predict that the misfit parameter δth decreases with the addition of Pb. These observations are an evidence to the fact that diffusional coherency strain is the most active driving force for the movement of the grain boundaries of the DP nodules during discontinuous precipitation in Mg-Al alloy.

    • Role of work hardening characteristics of matrix alloys in the strengthening of metal matrix composites

      K T Kashyap C Ramachandra C Dutta B Chatterji

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      The strengthening of particulate reinforced metal-matrix composites is associated with a high dislocation density in the matrix due to the difference in coefficient of thermal expansion between the reinforcement and the matrix. While this is valid, the role of work hardening characteristics of the matrix alloys in strengthening of these composites is addressed in the present paper. It is found that commercial purity aluminium which has the lowest work hardening rate exhibits the highest strength increment. This effect is due to increased prismatic punching of dislocations. This relationship of decreasing work hardening rate associated with increasing prismatic punching of dislocations in the order 7075, 2014, 7010, 2024, 6061 and commercial purity aluminium leading to increased strength increments is noted.

    • Electrochemical processing of high-Tc Bi(Pb)-Sr-Ca-CuO thin films

      N V Desai L A Ekal D D Shivagan S H Pawar

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      Superconducting thin films of Bi(Pb)-Sr-Ca-CuO system were prepared by depositing the film onto silver substrate by d.c. electrodeposition technique with dimethyl sulphoxide bath in order to examine the effect of Pb addition to the BSCCO system. The films were deposited at the potential of -0.8 V vs saturated calomel electrode (SCE) onto the silver substrate. The different preparative parameters such as deposition potential, deposition time were studied and optimized. These films were then oxidized electro-chemically at room temperature in an alkaline (1 N KOH) solution, and also at 600°C temperature in an oxygen atmosphere. The films showed the superconducting behaviour, with Tc values ranging between 85 K and 96 K, respectively.

    • 57Fe-ion implantation in pulse laser deposited La0.75Ca0.25MnO3 films: Conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies

      U D Lanke J Prabhjyot Pal

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      Oriented La0.75Ca0.25MnO3 (LCMO) films have been deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method on (100) LaAlO3 substrates. Ion-beam technique is used to introduce a very low concentration of57Fe in LCMO film. The deposited films were subjected to 100 keV57Fe+ implantation with different fluences at room temperature. The main motivation of this work was to study the influence of implantation on the transport mechanism in materials exhibiting colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) property. It is observed that Fe implantation drastically affects the structural and magneto-transport properties. The samples were characterized using the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique, conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) and resistance temperature (R-T) measurements.

    • Dehydration transformation in Ca-montmorillonite

      P Bala B K Samantaray S K Srivastava

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      The present work deals with the dehydration transformation of Ca-montmorillonite in the temperature range 30°–500°C. Thermal, infrared (IR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were used to describe the thermal transformation. The microstructural and layer disorder parameters like crystallite size, r.m.s. strain (〈e21/2), variation of interlayer spacing (g), and proportion of planes which were affected by the defect (γ), have all been calculated from the (001) basal reflection using the method of variance and Fourier line shape analysis. These investigations revealed that sample underwent transformation from hydrated phase to dehydrated phase at 200°C, and as a consequence, its basal spacing collapsed from 1602 Å (30°C) to around 10 Å (200°C). This transformation occurred through a wide range of temperature, i.e. within the range 120°–200°C. The crystallite size was maximum at room temperature (30°C), however, the size decreased with increasing temperature in the hydrated phase, whereas the size increased with increasing temperature for the dehydrated phase. Theg, γ and 〈e21/2 of the hydrated and the dehydrated phase increased and decreased, respectively with increase of heating temperature.

    • Effect of aluminium phosphate as admixture on oxychloride cement

      M P S Chandrawat R N Yadav

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      The effect of admixing of aluminium phosphate on oxychloride cement in the matrix has been investigated. It is shown that aluminium phosphate retards the setting process of the cement and improves water-tightness.

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