• Volume 17, Issue 1

      February 1994,   pages  1-93

    • Electron density maps of lysozyme calculated using synchrotron laue data comprising singles and deconvoluted multiples

      John W Campbell Ashley Deacon Jarjis Habash John R Helliwell Sean McSweeney Hao Quan James Raftery Edward Snell

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      We have used lysozyme as a test case to illustrate the application of a new method of estimating the intensities of Laue multiples reflection data in protein crystallography. Hen egg-white lysozyme, an enzyme with a single polypeptide chain of 129 amino acids, crystallizes in space group P43212 with cell parametersa=b=79·1 Å,c=37·9 Å. Laue image plate data were collected using synchrotron radiation on station 9·5 at Daresbury with a total exposure time of 0·95 seconds. The data processed were separated into two data sets comprising the singles and the combined singles and deconvoluted multiples. The method of deconvolution was that of Campbell and Hao (1993), which utilizes the intensity variation of theλ-curve. Electron density maps (2FoFc) based on the two data sets are then compared. This comparison shows that the deconvoluted multiples do indeed contribute usefully to the continuity of the maps due to the improved completeness of the data. A number of map sections along the polypeptide chain, based on the two Laue data sets, are shown for comparison. These include Arg 5, His 15, Phe 38, Asp 52, Tyr 53, Pro 70, Trp 108 and the four disulphide bridges.

    • Emission spectroscopic determination of B and Cd in magnesium used in uranium production

      S S Biswas P B Patil P S Murty

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      An emission spectroscopic method was developed for the determination of B and Cd at trace levels in magnesium employed in the production of nuclear-grade uranium. Magnesium sample was converted to magnesium oxide and ground with pure conducting graphite powder containing LiF and Ga2O3. Thirty mg of the mixture was excited in a DC arc operated at 12 A. A polychromator having secondary slits for B and Cd at 249·77 nm and 228·80 nm respectively was used for recording the intensities. The method gave a mean relative standard deviation of 5·5% for B and 7·6% for Cd in the concentration range 1–10 ppm.

    • A review of X-ray imaging phosphors

      S V Moharil

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      The important methods of X-ray imaging use various phosphors. The phosphors give light proportional to the amount of radiation. The light is emitted either as X-ray excited fluorescence, phosphorescence, or due to stimulated, radiative recombinations of defects generated by X-ray exposures. The role of phosphors in improving image quality and reducing exposures to patients is important. Properties of various phosphors which can be used for X-ray imaging applications are reviewed here.

    • Structural and magnetic properties of CaAl4Fe8O19

      D K Kulkarni C S Prakash

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      A new compound, CaAl4Fe8O19, was synthesized for the first time and characterized by X-ray diffraction. It was found to have a hexagonal magnetoplumbite structure with lattice parametersa=5·83 Å andc=22·14 Å. The electrical studies showed that the compound was a semiconductor with energy of activationq=0·86 eV. The magnetic susceptibility was studied in the temperature range 300 K to 850 K, in which the compound was paramagnetic with a Curie molar constant of 31·03.

    • Conduction mechanism in codeposited AgSe thin films

      P S Nikam H S Aher

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      Thin films of AgSe of varying compositions and thicknesses have been formed on glass substrates employing the three-temperature method.I–V characteristics and thermoelectric power, α, of annealed samples have been measured as functions of composition, thickness and temperature of the films. Films exhibitn-type conductivity. Nonohmic conduction in films of AgxSe1−x(0<x<0·5) and AgxSe1−x(0>x>0·5) have been accounted for on the basis of the theory of Rose of defect insulator containing shallow traps and on Schottky emission respectively.

    • Electrical properties of naphthyl polyenes

      Seema Sen Prabir Pal T N Misra

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      Dark and photoconductive properties ofα-ω-di-2-naphthyl polyenes were studied at different applied voltages and temperatures. These studies indicate that a single dominant trapping level is involved in both conduction processes. From this study some transport parameters are evaluated. Dependence of photocurrent on excitation light intensity indicates that the carrier generation process is a one-photon process and is trap-limited. The photocurrent decay study indicates that most of the photocarriers decay exponentially with time. Trap depths are calculated from the temperature dependence of decay constant and is found to be the same as that obtained from thermally stimulated current. The dependence of photocurrent on wavelength indicates two mechanisms of photocarrier generation process: one is excitonic and the other is intrinsic electron-hole pair production.

    • The role of additives in a complex lithium silicate glass-ceramic

      R N Das B K Chandrasekhar K J Rao

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      Several glass-ceramic compositions based on lithium silicates have been examined using thermal expansivity, X-ray diffraction, electrical conductivity, electron microscopy and solid state NMR studies. Role of P2O5 in nucleation and of Al2O3 in smoothening expansion behaviour have been particularly highlighted. Magic angle spinning NMR has been used to ascertain presence of Al in tetrahedral positions in the glassy phase.

    • Development of an ultra-high-strength low-alloy NiSiCrCoMo steel

      G Malakondaiah M Srinivas J Marthanda Murthy Rama Rao P

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      An ultra-high-strength low-alloy NiSiCrCoMo steel has been developed. The development work is part of a major programme at the Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory in the field of ultra-high-strength, high-fracture-toughness steels. In this context we undertook investigations to understand the effect of solute additions on the fracture behaviour of Armco iron and Fe-C alloys. We investigated Fe-Ni, Fe-Co, Fe-Si, Fe-Mo, Fe-C-Ni and Fe-C-Co alloys for mechanical behaviour. The report by Garrison (1986) on a Fe-C-Ni-Si-Cr alloy was an important pointer to a low-alloy, ultra-high-strength steel with high fracture toughness. The material we have now arrived at is a Fe-C-Ni-Si-Cr-Co-Mo steel with tensile, impact and fracture toughness properties matching those of maraging steel 250 grade in tonnage scale melts.

    • Magnetic shielding using high-temperature superconductors

      V Ganesan R Srinivasan S Aswathy K D Chandrasekaran B Srinivas U V Varada Raju G V Subba Rao R Gopalan T Rajasekaran

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      Magnetic shields of various high-temperature superconductors, YBa2Cu3O7−x (YBCO), YBa2Cu3O7−x-Ag composites (random inclusions as well as non-random coatings) and Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox (BSCCO) were prepared by uniaxial as well as isostatic compression with various dimensions. The shielding properties were measured at 77 K for dc and ac magnetic fields in the range of frequencies from 100 Hz to 10 kHz. The critical penetration field (CPF), defined as the value of the applied magnetic field at which a detectable field was observed inside the cylinder, varied from cylinder to cylinder and also with the ageing of the cylinders in the case of YBCO shields. The highest value of CPF was 16 G at 77 K for YBCO shield prepared by isostatic compression. Even though the stability of BSCCO shields with respect to ageing is good, the CPF values are very low compared to those for YBCO. Detailed studies were performed in the case of YBCO shields. The CPF decreased as a function of time over a period of 90 days. The CPF decreased as the frequency of the applied field was increased. The wave form of the field inside the pot for a sinusoidal applied field was highly distorted and showed the presence of higher harmonics with appreciable amplitude. The wave form was Fourier-analysed to yield the field inside the shield along with the harmonics. The shields with Ag addition seem to give better performance at high fields.

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