• Volume 98, Issue 6

      November 1989,   pages  373-445

    • Scanning electron microscopic observations on surface topography ofIsoparorchis hypselobagri (Billet 1898) Odhner 1927

      S K Tewari K C Pandey

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      Scanning electron microscopic observations have been made on the tegument and body pores of the wormIsoparorchis hypselobagri (Billet 1898) Odhner 1927, collected from the air bladder of the freshwater fishWallago attu (Schn.). The dorsal and ventral surfaces show characteristic differences under high resolution. Muscles, in hexagonal shape, are arranged on dorsal surface which give a brick floor appearance whereas the ventral surface is occupied by loose, irregular muscles. Sensory papillae are arranged in the excretory pore region around the excretory opening.

    • Isolation of neurosecretory hyperglycemic hormone from the eyestalks of freshwater crab,Barytelphusa cunicularis

      R Nagabhushanam P R Machale R Sarojini

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      A procedure is described for the purification of neurosecretory hyperglycemic hormone from the eyestalks of freshwater crab,Barytelphusa cunicularis. This procedure involved a combination of gel filtration on Sephadex G-50 and a subsequent preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis which revealed that hyperglycemic hormone moved faster than other proteins.

    • Gill diffusing capacity of a freshwater major carp,Labeo rohita (Ham.) in relation to body weight

      Anita Pandey G K Kunwar J S Datta Munshi

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      Emphasis has been placed on providing quantitative data for the water-blood barrier, including diffusion distance, diffusing capacity and overall diffusing capacity based on light microscopic observations. Using values for water-blood barrier obtained from light micrographs, the arithmatic and harmonic mean were found to be 1·88 and 1·32 μm respectively whereas the barrier itself varied from 0·68 to 3·248 μm. Diffusing capacityDt1 and overall diffusing capacityDg for 100 g fish were calculated as 0·5998 and 0·2046 mlO2/min/mmHg/kg. The diffusing capacityDt (mlO2/min/mmHg) showed increasing trend with increase in body weight with a slope of 0·6405 whereas weight specific diffusing capacityDt1 (mlO2/min/mmHg/kg) decreased by a slope of —0·3594.

    • Impact of age correlated biochemical changes of host plant on food consumption and utilization efficiency ofAularches scabiosae F (Orthoptera: Insecta)

      J Prasanth Jacob

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      The impact of age correlated biochemical changes inTectona grandis Linn f (Verbenaceae) leaves on the food consumption and utilization efficiency ofAularches scabiosae F is provided. The relative preference and maximum utilization of mature leaves when compared to young and senescent leaves are attributed to the changes in the chemical profile particularly protein, nitrogen, carbohydrates, phenols and free fatty acids.

    • Effect of rutin on the neonate sensitivity, dietary utilization and mid-gut carboxylesterase activity ofSpodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

      S S Ghumare S N Mukherjee R N Sharma

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      Rutin (quercitin-3-β-D-rutinoside) a widely occurring plant glycoside affects neonate survival and inhibits early larval growth of the tobacco leaf eating caterpillar,Spodoptera litura (F) when added to an artificial diet for this insect. Dietary concentration of rutin up to 1% wet weight had no adverse effect on the weight gain, nutritional indices (approximate digestibility, efficiency of conversion of assimilated and ingested food) when fed to early V instar larvae over a period of 48 h. Rutin was excreted unchanged and the overall amount excreted was ≈50%. Neonate larvae reared on control diet till early V instar and subsequently fed on high doses (0·1 to 1%) of rutin did not exhibit any increase in the mid-gut carboxylesterase activity. Similar rearing on sublethal doses (0·01 to 0·1%) of rutin, followed by feeding of a high dose (1%), resulted in significant increase in the midgut carboxylesterase activity of V instar larvae.

    • Persistent occurrence of spermatogenesis in the adult testes ofSpodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

      G Amaldoss

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      The histology and ultrastructure of the adult testis ofSpodoptera litura are studied using light microscopy and electron microscopy. Maturing spermatocytes, spermatids and their conditions within the testes are described. The continued occurrence of spermatogenesis in the adult testes has been traced and reported.

    • Effect of indomethacin on testicular hypertrophy in hemiorchidectomized immature rats

      R S Ayoub W H Yousif

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      The effect of indomethacin, an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, on testicular hypertrophy has been studied in immature rats following hemiorchidectomy. Hemiorchidectomy was performed on postnatal day 21 and the weight of the excised testis was recorded. On postnatal day 27, the animals were divided into two groups. Group 1 received saline (0·1 ml) and group 2 received indomethacin orally at 2 mg/kg/day. All animals were treated daily for 15 days. On completion of the treatments, the animals were sacrificed by ether administration. The final body weight and the weight of the remaining testis were recorded. Blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture for testosterone assay. The testes were kept in formol saline. Subsequently, they were prepared for quantitative histological study. Indomethacin significantly decreased the mean diameters of the seminiferous tubules. Cell counts indicated that there was a significant decrease in the mean numbers of spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes and spermatids. The testicular weight gain and the mean testosterone concentrations showed a nonsignificant decrease in treated animals. It is concluded that indomethacin exerts inhibitory action on spermatogenesis in hemiorchidectomized immature rats.

    • Rates of swarming and absconding in the giant honey bee,Apis dorsata F.

      G Venkatesh C Chandrasekhara Reddy

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      The frequency and timing of swarming and absconding of the giant honey beeApis dorsata F. at 5 perennial nesting sites located in and around Bangalore district during 1986–88 are determined. The percentages of swarming and absconding are very high and both these migratory activities occur regularly and at definite times of the year. Swarming was noticed both during October–November and in April, while absconding was observed during May to July. Swarming and absconding together caused migration inApis dorsata.

    • Factors affecting the surface cast production by some earthworms of Indian tropics

      R V Krishnamoorthy

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      Forty one sites in mango gardens located in different districts of southern Karnataka were selected for the study during September 1984. Rate of surface cast production, earthworm density and species composition of each site were recorded and compared in relation to the soil moisture, pH, temperature, organic matter and soil type of each site. Only 19 out of the 41 sites examined showed surface casting. Rate of surface cast production is dependent on soil, pH, temperature, soil type and organic matter content. The bulk density of the soil established a direct linear correlation, and the field capacity of soil, a perfect U-shaped (parabolic) relationship with the rate of surface cast production. Sandy loams had greater species diversity as well as population density than the clays. Worms were not found in heavy sands and acid soils. Positive correlations were obtained between organic matter and species diversity or density; other factors were poorly correlated. A positive correlation between the cast output and the relaxed length of the worm was obtained. It is discussed that the field capacity and bulk density of soils are the determining factors for variations in surface cast production.

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