• Volume 97, Issue 6

      November 1988,   pages  471-571

    • Inversion polymorphism in natural populations ofDrosophila nasuta nasuta

      B V Shyamala H A Ranganath

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      Six south Indian populations ofDrosophila nasuta nasuta were analysed for inversion polymorphism. A total of 28 inversions were recorded. Of these, 9 are entirely new gene arrangements reported here for the first time. Various facets of the polymorphic system of these 6 populations, namely, flexibility, heteroselection, non-random distribution and linkage disequilibrium are discussed.

    • Cytology and seasonal changes of the pituitary of the emballonurid bat,Taphozous melanopogon (Temminck)

      N Badwaik

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      The pituitary glands ofTaphozous melanopogon were examined histologically and cytochemically by employing several cytochemical staining techniques. The neural lobe is composed mostly of nerve fibres amidst which occur numerous small glial cells and a few Herring’s bodies. Two cell types have been identified in the pars intermedia. In addition to chromophobes, 5 different cell types, namely, 3 types of basophils (thyroid stimulating hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinising hormone producing cells) and two types of acidophils (lactotrophic hormone and somatotrophic hormone producing cells), were identified in the pars distalis. The gonadotrophs and the lactotrophs aggregate in patches in certain regions of the pars distalis and exhibit cyclical changes in structure and number. The physiological significance of the cyclical changes of these cells is discussed in relation to the reproductive cycle of the animal.

    • Haemodynamics of hamsters duringAncylostoma ceylanicum infection

      J K Srivastava Suman Gupta J C Katiyar

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      Alterations in haematological and liver glycogen values during the course ofAncylostoma ceylanicum (100L3, p.o.) infection in hamsters were investigated. In early phase of infection, there were marginal changes in haematological parameters, albuminglobulin ratio and liver glycogen, which transformed into severe alterations on patency (day 18, post infection). Haemoglobin, packed cell volume, total erythrocyte counts and liver glycogen values had a decreasing trend and reticulocytes increased considerably to compensate the red blood cell loss. Albumin/globulin ratio which was in favour of albumin in the beginning, reversed on day 24 p.i. When the animals were deparasitized with mebendazole (5 mg/kgxl, p.o.), all the parameters started resuming normalcy and on day 12 of treatment of all the parameters except albumin/globulin ratio attained the preinfection level.

    • Specialised integumentary glands of the Indian field mouse,Mus booduga booduga

      Latha K Pillai S Santhi K M Alexander

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      Histomorphological investigations on the specialised integumentary glands of Indian field mouse,Mus booduga booduga have revealed the existence of hypertrophied integumentary glands in the eyelids (tarsal), oral angle and at the perineal (circumanal) regions. The histophysiological characteristics of these specialised integumentary glands and their probable behavioural significance are discussed.

    • Bioenergetics and reproductive efficiency ofAtractomorpha crenulata F. (Orthoptera: Insecta) in relation to food quality

      M Senthamizhselvan K Murugan

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      Food consumption and utilization efficiency ofAtractomorpha crenulata feeding on the leaves ofRicinus communis, Arachis hypogaea andPanicum maximum are discussed. Longevity and fecundity of the insect feeding onRicimus communis were higher as compared to feeding on the other plants. Females tend to consume more food than the males in all the tested food plants. Energy allocated by the female to egg production varied between 7 and 15% of the assimilated energy during the adult phase.

    • Bioenergetics of feeding and metabolic cost of living in freshwater Caridean prawns

      R Ponnuchamy S Ravichandra Reddy Katre Shakuntala

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      The relative partitioning of food energy for processes like moulting, metabolism and growth of the freshwater prawns,Macrobrachium lanchesteri (Palaemonidae) andCaridina weberi (Atyidae) have been detailed through a bioenergetic scheme. The two species of prawns expend the same amount of food energy for the above processes. Conspecific population density inhibited growth by an overall increase in exuvial production, metabolism and faeces production. Moult-growth relationship ofMacrobrachium lanchesteri has been presented as a model for determining accurate measurements of moulting and growth of crustaceans.

    • Diurnal variation in renal and extra-renal excretion of ammonia-N and urea-N in a freshwater air-breathing teleost,Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch)

      N Saha J Chakravorty B K Ratha

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      Diurnal pattern of excretion of ammonia-N and urea-N through the renal and extra-renal sources were studied in a freshwater air-breathing teleost,Heteropneustes fossilis in its aquatic medium. Ammonia-N was the major nitrogen excretory product, however, the rate of excretion of urea-N was comparatively higher than other freshwater teleosts. Almost all ammonia-N (>99%) and about 75% of urea-N were excreted through the extra-renal sources. The excretion rate of urea-N was about 10 times higher than ammonia-N through the renal and ammonia-N was 7–8 times higher than urea-N through extra-renal sources. Existence of a functional ornithine-urea cycle reported inHeteropneustes fossilis has been suggested to be the reason for this increased rate of urea excretion.

      Nitrogen excretion (total ammonia-N + urea-N) during the night was significantly higher than the day. A higher rate of nitrogen metabolism at night has been suggested forHeteropneustes fossilis which has been reported to be nocturnal in habit.

    • Stylet course of lace bugStephanitis typica (Distant) in coconut leaf

      K Mathen C P Radhakrishnan Nair M Gunasekharan M P Govindankutty J J Solomon

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      The lace bugStephanitis typica feeds on coconut leaflet from its abaxial side. It inserts its stylet through stomata and sucks the contents of the coconut foliage. Besides this intracellular feeding, the stylet also ruptures the walls of the cells traversed in its course to reach the vascular bundles. The stylet tip in such cases terminates in phloem, thereby suggesting the ability of the bug to acquire the phloem-bound mycoplasma-like organisms, constantly associated with coconut root (wilt) disease in India.

    • Role of chemical components of resistant and susceptible genotypes of cotton and okra in ovipositional preference of cotton leafhopper

      Ram Singh R A Agarwal

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      Ovipositional preference of cotton leafhopper,Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Ishida) on resistant and susceptible genotyps of cotton and okra was found under the influence of chemical components. The non-reducing sugars, tannins, silica and free gossypol in the leaves showed significant and negative correlation with the number of leafhopper eggs.

    • Role of light and temperature in the roosting ecology of tropical microchiropteran bats

      K Usman

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      Tropical microchiropteran bats need to seek out environments of thermoneutrality which in the tropics, of course, may mean selecting ‘cooler’ places for the diurnal roosts. Thus the roosting sites of all the species studied,Rhinopoma hardwickei, Taphozous melanopogon, Hipposideros speoris, Hipposideros bicolor andMegaderma lyra inhabiting caves, caverns, interiors of temples and a cellar were cooler by several degrees and showed a relatively constant temperature than outside in the open. Such a lower and relatively constant temperature found in the roosts apparently aid in lowering the metabolic rate and cost and may be vital in these tropical species that do not hibernate and some of which may be (such asHipposideros speoris) continuous breeders. This paper presents the temperature and light intensity profiles of bat roosts over 24 h periods for the course of an entire year. It is found that physical protection from predators, relative constancy of temperatures, lower levels of illumination and high humidity seem to determine the choice for roosts in these species of bats.

    • Growth in the Asian elephant

      R Sukumar N V Joshi V Krishnamurthy

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      Records of captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) were used to derive parameters of the von Bertalanffy function for growth in height, body weight and circumference of tusks with age. There was some evidence for a post-pubertal secondary growth spurt in both male and female elephants. Domestic elephants which were born in captivity or captured at a young age also showed a reduced growth in height in both the sexes and in body weight in males compared to wild elephants. Aspects of allometric growth such as height-body weight relationship are examined. The height was twice the circumference of front foot throughout the life span, indicating an isometric relationship.

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