Volume 97, Issue 3
May 1988, pages 181-287
pp 181-187 May 1988
Sperms were isolated fromBufo melanostictus testes, by a simple technique of differential centrifugation. β-Galactosidase, N-acetyl β-D-glucosaminidase, α-L-fucosidase, neuraminidase and acid phosphatase activities were detected in the sperms. All the sugar components of the jelly glycoprotein were released when toad jelly glycoprotein was treated with sperm suspension. These facts suggest that the sperm glycosidases are involved in the penetration of jelly by the sperm at the time of fertilization.
pp 189-196 May 1988
The testis formed of 4 follicles develops as a definitive organ on the first day of IV instar. The localization of Δ5-3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, was limited to peritoneal sheath and epithelial layer of the testis of IV and V instar larva. From 3rd day of pupation upto the 8th day of pupation the enzyme activity extended to the cysts containing spermatogonical cells, primary and secondary spermatocytes and subsequently to the spermatids and spermatozoan bundles from 9th day of pupation and continued thereafter in the adults. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity was observed in all the testicular components during larval, pupal and adult stages. These results indicate that the developing and adult testis of eri silkworm,Philosamia ricini has the ability to metabolize hydroxysteroids.
pp 197-202 May 1988
Dietary water intake in penultimate two instars of silkwormBombyx mori and eri silkwormPhilosamia ricini fedad libitum on mulberry leafMorus alba and castor leafRicinus communis respectively at 26±2°C is reported. The lower ration level results in accumulation of water content in the body of insects. The water retention efficiency (per cent of absorbed water retained in the body) increases with the decreasing ration level. The larva retains higher amount of water in the body by increasing water retention efficiency from 22% at 100% ration to 61% at 25% ration. This is an important adaptive mechanism exhibited by larvae. The water utilization budgets are discussed with the budgets available for other insects.
pp 203-210 May 1988
Fifth instar hoppers (48 h old) ofHieroglyphus nigrorepletus were injected with different sub-lethal doses (0·5, 1, 2, 4 and 6 μg/hopper) of triol — and makisterone A, after 3 days the haemocytes of these hoppers were selectively damaged. The granular haemocytes, being the most susceptible cells were completely damaged even by the weakest dose of triol and makisterone A. Prohaemocytes and plasmatocytes were intensely damaged by 1 μg of makisterone A, 2 and 1 μg doses of triol respectively. However, oenocytoids were comparatively resistant cells, but they were also damaged by 2 μg triol and 4 μg makisterone A. Following the emergence of adults from the treated hoppers after 3 days, both granular haemocytes and plasmatocytes were indistinguishable with respect to even weakest dose of both the hormones. Comparatively prohaemocytes were less damaged and could be recognized in adults affected with 1 and 2 μg of makisterone A and triol respectively. However, oenocytoids were completely disintegrated in adults emerged from the hoppers injected with 1 and 2 μg of triol and makisterone A respectively. In adults of both sexes, respective haemocytes developed almost similar pathological condition with regard to each dose.
pp 211-222 May 1988
In Reduviidae, the glandular outgrowths from the bursa either as paired or as a single median gland distinctly different from the paired subrectal glands are described as the bursal glands. The occurrence of such female accessory glands has been investigated in 22 species of Reduviidae. Based on their development, the glands are classified into 3 types. The histomorphology of the gland in various species is given.
pp 223-230 May 1988
The subrectal glands associated with the female reproductive system is a characteristic feature of Harpactorinae. These glands produce spumaline for gluing eggs to the substratum in a mass. Occurrence of subrectal glands have been investigated in 18 reduviid species. The gross morphology and histomorphology of these glands are illustrated and described.
pp 231-237 May 1988
Pure venom from 3 Indian spiders was extracted by electrical stimulation. The average amount of venom yielded per spider and the average protein content in the venom were evaluated. The venom proteins and free amino acids have been separated by electrophoretic and chromatographic techniques respectively. Nine major fractions were separated from the wolf spider,Lycosa indagastrix and 7 from funnel web spiderPleisiophrictus collinus and the common house spiderHeteropoda venatoria. Each venom had a distinct electrophoretic pattern. Chromatographic studies revealed that proline was the only free amino acid common to all the 3 venoms.
pp 239-250 May 1988
Comparative biology of the wormDichogaster bolaui (Michaelsen) in a pasture and compost pit has been reported. Important findings are: (i) restriction of more than 84% ofDichogaster bolaui population to upper 10 cm of the soil depth indicating surface living habit; (ii) attainment of a peak population of 12617 worms/m2; (iii) a zero population during summer revealing environmental drasticity (soil temperature > 31°C, soil moisture < 1 g%) and yearly recolonisation of worms; (iv) habitat variation in the reproductive strategy with an unimodality in pasture and bimodality in compost pit; and (v) preemergence of juveniles followed by post cocoon peak indicating population survival through cocoons during summer.
pp 251-262 May 1988
Histological and histochemical observations were made on infected and uninfected digestive glands of snails,Melanoides tuberculatus. Infected gland either with sporocysts ofCercaria diglandulata (Xiphidio) or with rediae ofCercaria martini (Monostome) revealed basically two types of histopathological abnormalities (damages), mechanical (lesion 1) and physiological (lesion 2). Depletion of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins as well as increased activities of phosphatases, lipase, non-specific esterase and glucose-6-phosphatase were also reflected by infected digestive gland. Alterations either histological or histochemical in infected glands are associated with the type and size of trematode larvae and degree of parasitemea and these were greater in glands infected with rediae than in sporocysts. Besides pathogenesis, the present study also focusses on the mode of nutrition in certain trematode larvae.
pp 263-273 May 1988
The adrenal glands of the south Indian female gerbil,Tatera indica cuvierii (Waterhouse) exhibited seasonal changes in their weight, histology and histochemistry during different months of the year. Seasonal changes seen in the adrenal glands also correlate with that of changes in the ovary. The cortical cells of the zona fasiculata and zona reticularis in the adrenal glands of sexually active gerbils show decrease in cell as well as nuclear sizes during quiescent period (April–July). The zona glomerulosa and medulla do not show any changes in their structure during different reproductive phases. Histochemically, the zona fasiculata and zona reticularis of the adrenal glands of the gerbils accumulate abundant lipids and carbohydrates during breeding period, when compared with quiescent females. The ‘X’ zone shows fluctuation and is present in the mature, pregnant and spayed females and disappears in parous and quiescent gerbils. It is inferred that a relatively unchanged secretion of mineralocorticoids, an increased or decreased secretion of glucocorticoids required to maintain the functional status of adrenal cortex could be possible in gerbils during the reproductive cycle.
pp 275-287 May 1988
Rhinopoma microphyllum breeds once a year in a sharply defined season. It is monotocous, the two sides of the female genitalia being equally functional, although only one at a time. The embryo reaches the uterus as an early morula. Implantation is superficial and circumferential with the embryonic mass oriented towards the mesometrial side. The primitive amnion is formed by cavitation and the definitive amnion is formed by the development of folds. The yolk-sac develops as in all other bats. The definitive placenta is discoid, mesometrial, labyrinthine and vasodichorial.