• Volume 94, Issue 1

      January 1985,   pages  1-86

    • Endocrine influence on protein synthesis in the fatbodies of female red cotton bug,Dysdercus cingulatus Fabr

      Raji Raghavan D Muraleedharan

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      Extirpation of pars intercerebralis neurosecretory cells (PINSC) of femaleD. cingulatus significantly brought down the level of protein synthesis in the fatbodies 48, 72, and 96 hr after the operation, while implantation of active PINSC into both normal and PINSCablated females elevated substantially the protein content in the fatbodies. Additional supply of JHa (FME) by topical application activated protein synthesis in the fatbodies both in the allatectomised and normal females. Histochemical studies to demonstrate the protein content in the fatbodies of the above experimental insects also corroborated these findings. Probable regulatory mechanism of protein synthesis in the fatbodies of femaleD. cingulatus by the hormonal principles from PINSC and corpus allatum are discussed in the light of the above findings.

    • Observations on the histology and histochemistry ofPenetrocephalus plerocercoid (Pseudophyllidea: Cestoda)

      K J Chandra K Hanumantha Rao K Shyamasundari

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      The histology of plerocercoid ofPenetrocephalus sp. reveal that the body surface consists of tegument, basement membrane, epidermal longitudinal musculature, parenchymatic longitudinal musculature, transverse and dorsoventral muscle fibres. Three types of glands could be recognized from the scolex of the plerocercoid. The musculature of the plerocercoid consists of glycogen, acid, sulfated, neutral and carboxylated mucopolysac-charides: basic proteins containing tyrosine, S-H and S-S groups, protein bound amino groups, sulfhydril groups, glycoprotein and lipid.

      The frontal glands contain carbohydrates (1, 2 glycols, both acid and neutral mucopolysac-charides), basic protein (tyrosine, S-H group, protein bound amino group) and phospholipids. The structure, organization and histochemistry of the plerocercoid is discussed.

    • Effect of starvation on acid phosphatase activity inGastrothylax crumenifer

      M C Sathyanarayana

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      Effect of starvation on acid phosphatase activity inGastrothylax crumenifer showed that activity was greater in starved individuals than in well fed ones.

    • Four new species of trypanoplasms from the fresh water fishes of the genusMystus in Maharashtra

      M A Wahul

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      Four new species of haemoflagellates of the genusTrypanoplasma, Laveran and Mesnil, 1901viz T. krishnamurthyi, T. cavacii, T. vidyai and T. seenghali are described from the fresh water fishes of the genus Mystus in Maharashtra.

    • Mechanism of resistance in rice varieties showing differential reaction to brown planthopper

      K Venugopala Reddy M B Kalode

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      A total of 1070 rice varieties, mainly from Assam Rice Collection, were evaluated to identify better sources of resistance to brown planthopper,Nilaparvata lugens (Stål). In mass screening replicated tests 17 varieties were identified as resistant. Moderate resistance was observed in 73 varieties.

      All the resistant and moderately resistant varieties were relatively less preferred by nymphs and there was a positive correlation between the number of nymphs settled and the damage score. Test varieties non-preferred by adult insects for feeding and shelter were also less suitable for oviposition with the exception of ARC 13854, and ARC 14766A. On resistant varieties the nymphal survival was much lower (18·5–28·4%) and nymphal duration was prolonged by 5–7 days as against those on the susceptible check. Results of probing behaviour tests indicated that resistant varieties received more number of probing punctures (80–121) than the susceptible check (31). Further, insects caged on resistant varieties quickly lost their body weight while those on the susceptible check registered gain in weight. Honey dew excretion by brown planthopper adults on resistant varieties was 6·6 to 11·9 times less than that on susceptible T(N)1. Selected varieties showing moderate damage reaction (ARC 5918, ARC 10443, ARC 13984, ARC 14529 and ARC 14864) exhibited more feeding marks, greater amounts of excretion, and higher gain in body weight of the insects, thus confirming a moderate degree of resistance. Based on various parameters, ARC 5780, ARC 5988 and ARC 14394 were comparable to resistant check, Ptb 33 in level of resistance. No association of Lemma and Palea colour with brown planthopper resistance was observed in the rice varieties tested.

    • Larval and post-larval development ofSpodoptera litura (Fabricius) on some host plants

      G P Garad P R Shivpuje G G Bilapate

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      The tobacco caterpillar,Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) was reared on different host plants under laboratory conditions. This article reports the growth and development ofS. litura on different host plants.

    • Activity-time budget in blackbuck

      N L N S Prasad

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      The activity patterns of black buck observed at Mudmal showed that feeding accounted for the maximum frequency (75%) with an average duration of 77 sec followed by standing with a frequency of 62% and an average duration of 19·9 sec. Lying although had only 4% frequency, showed an average duration of over 30 min.

      The hourly time budgets for basic activity patterns during the day in a season varied greatly for both females and territorial males. Rhythms of feeding and lying peaks occurred alternately during the day in all seasons. The time budgets for the activity patterns showed seasonal variation. Lying time per day was more than the average time allotted to any activity. In the case of females, the average time spent for feeding per day during summer was 25% which was more than that of monsoon and winter. The time spent in lying was 39% which increased to 48% in monsoon and winter. The average time spent in walking and standing did not show any significant seasonal variation. The time budgets for the territorial males also showed the same tendency as that of the females in all seasons. During winter, however, the feeding time per day was 11% while the lying time was 57%, the former being significantly less and the latter significantly greater than the females.

    • Some biochemical changes in the reproductive cycle of a hill stream teleostPuntius chilinoides (McClelland)

      B P Nauriyal H R Singh

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      The protein content was highest in the ovaries ofPuntius chilinoides during the maturing stage and in the testes during the mature stage. The activity of the acid phosphatase and the number of isozymes decreased in the testes during maturation, whereas in the ovaries the activity increased during the maturation and spent stages. The alkaline phosphatase activity in the testes increased during maturation phase, while in the ovaries the highest activity of the enzyme was recorded at the maturing stage and the lowest during the mature stage. Cholesterol level in the ovaries was highest during the maturing stage, while in the testes it was noticed during the immature stage. The sugar contents in the gonads were highest at the mature stage. The results are discussed in relation to the reproductive cycle inP. Chilinoides.

    • Effect of carbaryl on esterases in the air-breathing fishChanna punctatus (Bloch)

      S Arunachalam S Palanichamy M P Balasubramanian

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      Electrophoretic analyses of liver and muscle ofChanna punctatus revealed that they contain atleast six and eight fractions of esterase, respectively. Characterization of esterase was made on the basis of their responses towards certain inhibitors. Liver esterase consists of acetylesterase and carboxyl esterases, whereas the muscle esterase has three types namely acetylesterase, carboxylesterase and cholinesterase. The liver and muscle ofC. Punctatus subjected to maximum sublethal concentration of carbaryl were electrophoretically analysed and it was found that both liver and muscle showed only three fractions of esterase.

    • Irradiation effects on the adrenal gland of rats undergoing inanition stress

      S S Hasan P K Chaturvedi

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      The effect of total body x-irradiation was studied on rats under inanition stress. In response to irradiation an increase in the activity of cortex and medulla was noted in inanition stress administered rats rather than in the normally fed animals. Similarly, rising levels of urinary catecholamines and 5-hydroxytryptamine were observed in the starved animals after irradiation.

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