Volume 92, Issue 3
May 1983, pages 185-276
pp 185-191 May 1983
The aggressive behaviour rhythm ofBandicota hengalensis under different social conditions were studied in the laboratory. The number, intensity and duration of aggressive behaviour peaks varied depending on the number, sex and social status of the interacting conspecific /s. Significantly the peaks of aggression were recorded during the dark period. In heterosexual conflicts both sexes were equally belligerent. However in male interactions with more females, the former emerged dominant always. Similarly one male dominated another in male-male encounters. Confrontation amongst several males in the presence of female indicat ed the existence of onlyalpha andomega males.
pp 193-198 May 1983
The ability of healthy individuals ofPontoscolex corethrurus to survive and maintain its weight in tap water and different concentrations of NaCl and sucrose solution is studied. In water, earthworms survived normally but died at 48 hr exposure in 5% sugar and 0.4% NaCl. In water, an increase of 26% in total body weight was observed at 4 hr exposure. Weight also increased when exposed to 1, 2, 3 and 4% sugar solution, but it decreased in 5% sugar solution. This decrease in weight may be due to osmotic crisis. Similar weight changes have also been observed in NaCl solutions. An increase in weight was observed up to 0.3% NaCl and a decrease in weight in 0.4% NaCl and above.
pp 199-205 May 1983
Two urban and two forest groups of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatto) were observed for their behaviours like social grooming, social play, coalition relations and consort relations. Adult females played a major role in grooming all other age-sex classes. The grooming between adult males and females increased during mating season. Social play was confined to infants and juveniles. Young adult males participated in play during non-mating season. Adults of both sexes participated in coalition and consort relations.
pp 207-214 May 1983
The tegumental glands inLigia exotica are located around the oesophagus and also in the tissues of maxillae and maxillipeds. Each gland consists of a number of acini and each acinus is made of a rosette of 8–11 large conical cells. Histochemical observations of these glands reveal the presence of strongly sulphated and carboxylated acid mucopolysaccharides and neutral mucopolysaccharides.
pp 215-220 May 1983
InPuntius sarana, changes in metabolic rates in relation to ambient oxygen fell into the general pattern at 30 and 55° C, the differences being mainly in the levels of metabolism, both aerobic and anaerobic. The mean RQs at high ambient oxygen were 0.77 and 0.63 revealing that the fish were aerobic under adequate ambient oxygen. The hypoxic RQ were 1.42 and 1.90 suggesting that the fish derived considerable energy anaerobically. The aerobic AQs ranged between 0.06 and 0.18 depending on the utilization of protein and the hypoxic AQs were in consonance with the corresponding changes in hypoxic RQs. As judged from the asphyxiai oxygen level,P. sarana can live, below air saturation, up to 0.41 and 0.49 mg O2/1 at 30° and 35°C respectively. The random activity of the fish increased with decrease of ambient oxygen.
pp 221-229 May 1983
Synthetic anabolic sex steroid hormones such as methyltestosterone (MT), testosterone (T), testosterone propionate (TP), estroid (ED), diethylstilbesterol (DES), diethylstilbesterol dipropionate (DES dipro) and docabolin (DN) were tested separately for their effect on food utilization inChanna striatus. Injection of low dosages of DES, DES dipro and TP acts as appetite depressors and Dn, MT, Ed and T as stimulators. MT, Ed and Dn induced not only increased feeding but also increased conversion. T promoted growth along with food consumption. Though DES and DES dipro suppressed feeding; individuals receiving these hormones showed increased growth with increasing dosage.
pp 231-246 May 1983
Revision of the genusGongrochanus Kier from Upper Cretaceous beds of South India has revealed the presence of seven species including its type speciesG. herschelianus (M’Clelland). On the basis of phyllode characters the species have been divided into two informal groups. A biometrical analysis by applying the Bartlett’s andF-test proves the validity of the species described. Coefficients of correlation and regression computed for parameters of length, width and height forG. herschelianus are dependent upon one another; that change of length versus width is more regular than that of length versus height. Occurrence of this genus inHauriceras rembda zone andPachydiscus otacodensis zone of Kallankurichchi and Ottakkovil formations respectively of Ariyalur Group helps in rectifying its geological age which now can be taken as extending from Lower Maestrichtian to Middle Maestrichtian instead of Senonian.
pp 247-251 May 1983
The life history of sexuparae and sexual morphs of woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum Hausmann) is reported from Simla Hills. Sexuparae are alate parthenogenetic viviparae and produce the sexuals (males and oviparae). The reproductive potential of sexuparae is much lower as compared to that of virginoparae. Sexuals are apterous and have degenerated mouth parts. An ovipara lays only one egg. All these morphs undergo four moults resulting in five instar stages.
pp 253-261 May 1983
Tatera indica, a common rodent pest of Indian agriculture, quickly develops poison aversion and bait-shyness towards zinc phosphide, the only acute rodenticide known to farming community. For managing residual population of field rodents, alternate baits are, therefore, required. The present study gives the results of bait preference studies conducted onT. indica.
pp 263-276 May 1983
InEphestia cautella, Corcyra cephalonica andTribolium castaneum, multiple and viable supernumerary larval moults are brought about by treatment of the last larval instar with juvenoids. The normal last larval instar responds to such treatment throughout its life but the number of extra moults is age and dose-related. Supernumerary instars show progressive increase in weight, size and head width. Dyars Law of growth is not strictly applicable. Until a certain stage, a single treatment or removal from juvenoid mixed medium is followed by 2 or 3 further moults and the insects metamorphose normally. Administration of juvenoids with food is more effective than topical treatment.