Volume 91, Issue 5
September 1982, pages 407-491
pp 407-415 September 1982
Histology and histochemistry of the albumen and capsular glands are described. Histochemical tests revealed the high proteinaceous nature of these glands. The secretion of the albumen gland is rich in carbohydrates besides protein whereas that of the capsular gland is a mucoprotein.
pp 417-422 September 1982
The effect of temperature on food intake, growth and conversion efficiency has been studied in the final instar male and female larvae cfEupterote mollifera. Food consumed, assimilated and metabolised decreased with increase in temperature. The larval duration decreased from 12 days for the group reared at 22° C to 5 days for the group reared at 37δ C. While the rates of feeding, assimilation and conversion increased with increase in temperature, high conversion efficiencies (K1 and K2) were observed for the larvae reared at 27 and 32° C.
pp 423-426 September 1982
Seasonal variations were observed, in total acid soluble phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus and phosphorus in the muscle ofC. batrachus L. The maximum concentration of these constituents were recorded during April, May and June. Thereafter values decreased and the levels remained low during winter months. The observed changes have been correlated with feeding intensity, gonad maturation and spawning. The rise and fall of different phosphorus contents were found to coincide with high and low rate of feeding. There was a gradual rise in the values when gonads advanced towards maturity. The maximum concentration corresponded to the period of peak ripeness (April, May and June). The values declined during the spawning period which possibly indicate the utilization of these reserves for energy. The low phosphorus contents observed in post-spawning and winter appear to be the result of exhaustion of spawning.
pp 427-431 September 1982
A high degree of pollution by tannery effluent contamination has been recorded in an irrigation reservoir in North Arcot district, Tamil Nadu. Seepage of contaminants into drinking water wells has also been observed. The tannery effluent is found to inflict changes in succinate dehydrogenase activity levels in the hepatopancreas ofPila globosa, a common inhabitant of the polluted environment.
pp 433-438 September 1982
Ovarian hypertrophy is studied by hemispaying the rats for 7, 15, 20, 25 and 30 days. The compensatory hypertrophy of the ovary is calculated in relation to their respective sham operated controls. The maximum hypertrophy is observed 20 days after hemispaying, as indicated by ovarian weight and its histological observations. Thereafter the hypertrophic response though significant, decreases gradually, indicating that once the circulating estrogen secreted by the hypertrophied ovary comes to preoperative level, the pituitary gonadotrophin level also falls down. The hemispaying has no significant effect either on the duration or number of estrous cycle.
pp 439-450 September 1982
The paired ‘H’-shaped testes ofPotamon koolooense show histomorphological changes during various stages of maturity. Seminiferous tubules show different stages of spermatogenesis. A few undifferentiated or resting spermatogonia supply a new crop of germ cells for the next breeding season. In a tubule the meiotic divisions occur more or less synchronously in all the primary or secondary spermatocytes. Sperm consists of a head and mitochondrial vesicle which encloses axial filament and distal centrosome. Spermatogenesis activity is seasonal. Spermatogenesis begins in January-February, progresses slowly through March, reaching its peak in April-May. However, all the tubules do not mature simultaneously. Spermiation occurs during May and June, the spermatogenesis ceases gradually, and by December the testes enter a brief period of rest.
pp 451-462 September 1982
The ovaries ofP. koolooense which are paired H-shaped structures undergo seasonal morphometric and histological changes. A minute oviduct leads into the seminal receptacle which receives sperms during breeding season. Oogonia and young oocytes develop in the germinal zone, present in the centre of the ovary. The resting or residual oogonia which occur throughout the year divide shortly after ovulation and supply new crop of germ cells for the next breeding season. Five maturational stages of ova have been described on the basis of changes that occur in their nuclei and cytoplasm. They are oogonium, premeiotic oocyte, previtellogenic oocyte, vitellogenic oocyte and the ripe ovum. Spawning occurs during May or June. The weight of the ovaries, gonad index and ova diameter were minimum in June and reached a maximum value in April.
pp 463-468 September 1982
Warfarin was evaluated in laboratory against Indian gerbil,Tatera indica and desert gerbil,Meriones hurrianae. Chronic LD50 for the two species was found to be 4 × 19·1 and 4 × l5·9mg/kg respectively. Feeding for 14 days on 0·025% warfarin treated bait provided complete kill in the gerbils but the poisoned bait was less palatable than the plain bait. A period of 18 and 19 days feeding on 0·025% waifarin bait was found suitable to detect resistance to warfarin amongT. indica andM. hurrianae respectively.
pp 469-472 September 1982
Handling caused excitement which resulted in lower random activity associated with higher rate of oxygen consumption. The routine and standard oxygen consumption rates were increased by 260 and 238%, and 291 and 277% at 30° and 35° C respectively. The temperature effect (30–35° C) did not cause a marked difference (P < 0·05) in the rate of oxygen consumption and random activity inR. corsula.
pp 473-479 September 1982
Effects of continuous intramuscular administration of the lipoidal and aqueous extracts of the wall of the largest preovulatory follicle (3·8–4·0 cm), to chicks from 11 to 29 weeks on alternate days have been studied on the ovarian growth, follicular growth and atresia, and the onset of ovulation. The lipoidal and aqueous extracts appear to have antagonistic effects on the follicular growth and atresia. Chicks injected with lipid extract show increased ovarian weight, enhanced follicular growth and egg laying started at 22nd week which is earlier to 25th week in control birds. The onset of egg laying was delayed in chicks injected with aqueous extract of largest follicle wall by 4 weeks as compared to control birds. Their ovaries showed decreased rate of follicular growth and increased follicular atresia as a result of which abundant amount of lipid-rich interstitial gland tissue of thecal origin accumulates in them.
pp 481-486 September 1982
In this paper quantitative estimations of free proteins, total carbohydrates/ glycogen and fatty acids from cockroach haemolymph and heart muscle are reported from normal and insecticide treated insects. High content of protein, carbohydrate/glycogen and fatty acids are found in the haemolymph and heart muscle of nymphal insects. Higher amount of carbohydrates/glycogen are found in adult males, while more protein and fatty acids were found in the females. After insecticide treatment, no sex variation was found in the percent depletion of metabolites. The difference in the depletion rates between nymph and adult was also insignificant. High percent depletion of the macro-molecules was found with insecticides which are found more toxic in bioassay studies. A correlation has been made between the rate of depeltion and insecticidal poisoning.
pp 487-491 September 1982
One hundred mature specimens ofP. chilinoides collected from the Badiyar gaad, a tributary of the river Alaknanda were examined for fecundity. The fish weight, ovary weight, and fecundity ranged from 25–115 g, 2·1–14·35 g, and 2135–7974 respectively. The ovary weight was found from 8·4 to 16·34% of the body weight. The relationships between fecundity and total length and weight of fish, fecundity and length, weight and volume of ovary, fish length-ovary weight, and fish weight-ovary weight were found to be of linear form.