Volume 91, Issue 1
January 1982, pages 1-98
pp 1-5 January 1982
Two three-break shifts (transpositions) are detected in a chromosome comparison betweenD.n. nasuta andD. kohkoa. Such aberrations are not reported in studies with chromosome comparisons inDrosophila species. The probable sequences are given to explain the occurrence of these transpositions.
pp 7-12 January 1982
Specimens ofNotopterus notopterus were exposed to three subl that concentrations (1/10th, 1/15th and 1/20th of 96 hr LC50) of phenol (P), 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), pentachlorophenol (PCP), and their three combinations (PCP + DNP)/P (highly antagonistic), (DNP + P)/PCP (additive) and (P + DNP)/PCP (highly synergistic) for 15 and 30 days, and brain, liver, kidney and gills were taken out separately for determining acid phosphatase activity. In general, inhibition was maximum (89–32%) and highly significant (P<0·001) in brain, and minimum (6–93%) and insignificant in kidney of fish exposed to 1/10th of (P + DNP)/PCP and P, respectively after 30 days. When P, DNP and PCP were used separately PCP exerted more inhibitory effects than DNP and P. However, significant stimulation (P<0·05; P<001) at 1/15th and J/20th of P and DNP both after 15 and 30 days, and insignificant at 1/20th of (PCP + DNP)/P after 15 days was also observed in kidney.
pp 13-26 January 1982
Field observations were carried out on rhesus monkeys living in Asarori Forest, Chakia Forest, and temples. Data on group size, group composition and socionomic sex-ratios were obtained. An average home range size in these three habitats was fouad to be 5·18 km2 1·152 km2 and 0·017 km2 respectively. A positive correlation was found between group size and home range size in the Asarori Forest. Core areas were absent inside the home ranges in Chakia Forest. The average core area in other 2 habitats was 0·48 km2 and 0·009 km2 in Asarori Forest and temples respectively. The variability in home ranges and core areas is analysed in terms of differences in ecological conditions.
pp 27-32 January 1982
The changes in total protein, total phosphorus, calcium and cholesterol contents wore observed in serum and liver of treated and control fishClarias batrachus L. Alerin caused more pronounced effect in liver than in serum. Values remained significantly low in liver of experimental fish than in control, while the serum constituents fluctuated widely. The variations observed in different values are explained as transfer or development of tolerance. A constant increase of cholesterol in serum corresponding to a regular decrease in liver is interpreted as deportation of cholesterol from liver to serum as a result of liver damage by aldrin poisoning.
pp 33-38 January 1982
The effect, of seven factors was studied on the activity of hepatopancreatic sucrase ofMacrobrachium lamarrei. Its optimum pH is 6·0 and optimum temperature 50° C and its activity was suppressed by the two end products, glucose and fructose. On prolonging incubation period sucrase activity remained constant up to 8 hr, declined thereafter, finally becoming zero. Increasing enzyme concentration produced a similar effect. Its Km value is 4·5 × 10−2 M. Dialysis suppressed its activiiy by 17·9%.
pp 39-44 January 1982
In the laboratory, under choice situation,C. longitarsus preferred shells with greater shell width and shell weight. The correlation coefficient values calculated between the crab and shell parameters in the laboratory sample showed that this hermit crab selects a shell of suitable dimension for its occupation. In the multiple regression equations calculated with carapace length against the three shell variables aperture width, shell width and shell weight which are deemed to be important for hermit crabs, the regression coefficient of the variables varied much. The unsealed first principal component explained 84·9% of the total variability of the shell parameters and scaled first principal component explained 95·8% of shell parameters. The scaled first principal component was found to be a reliable estimator of shell size and the hermit crab, if given a choice, selected a shell of suitable dimension which fits its body quite closely.
pp 45-55 January 1982
Toxicity and persistence of fenitrothion, fenthion, malathion, methyl parathion, and trichlorphon applied at 0·05% (400 g/ha) were evaluated on peach fruits (Primus persica L.) against the neonate larvae ofDacus cucurhitae Coquillett in two seasons (1977–78). Fenitrothion and methyl parathion were highly toxic materials followed by fenthion and malathion, while trichlorphon was the least toxic. Fenitrothion was highly persistent (12 days) followed by methyl parathion (7 days). All the insecticide residues were within the acceptable limits at the time of harvest
pp 57-66 January 1982
A comparative study has been made of the articular organisation of isopod wood borerSphaeroma terebrans, a foulerSphaeroma walkeri and a free living isopodCiroiana fluviatilis. The cuticle ofS. terebrans shows both structural and chemical peculiarities. InS. walkeri, the epicutiele contains ftiehsiuophilic protein and gives evidence of primary tanning. InC. fluviatilis the epicutiele is similar to that of other isopods.
pp 67-77 January 1982
Larval survival and post-embryonic development of the spotted bollworm,Earias vittella was studied on 23 genotypes belonging to three cultivated species of cotton (Gossypium arboreum, G. bar bade use andG. hirsutum). There were significant differences in larval survival and post-embryonic development on different genotypes. The larval survival varied from 27·1 to 93·3%, developmental period from 16·6 to 20·3 days, pupation from 60 to 100% and adult emergence from 78 to 94%. Gossypol increased the post-embryonic developmental period. Majority of the larvae entered the bolls through the thallic region, possibly, to avoid higher concentrations of gossypol in the pericarpic region. Tannin content of bolls was significantly and negatively correlated with adult emergence.
Crosses between resistant and susceptible genotypes ofG. arboreum segregated into pigmented (red) and non-pigmented (green) plant types. The former were rich in gossypol and tannins compared to the latter. Gossypol and tannin content of bolls showed negative correlation with spotted bollworm incidence.
pp 79-98 January 1982
The marine catfish genusArius of the family Ariidae comprising 21 species have been divided into six complexes and three groups based on interspecific relationships and morphometric affinities. In this paper themaculatus complex of four species,viz., Anus maculatus, Arius arius, Arius gagora andArius jella has been critically examined in respect of a selected list of 20 morphological characters based on examination of a large series of examples collected first hand by the authors. The samples have been statistically analysed, and the range of variation in respect of each character as exhibited by each species has been delineated. The probability significance test has been made to establish the interspecific relationship.