Volume 90, Issue 4
July 1981, pages 365-493
pp 365-371 July 1981
Two new haemogregarines,Haemogregarina waltairensis n. sp. fromCalotes versicolor (Daudin) andH. ganapatii n. sp. fromLissemys punctata granosa (Shoepff) are described. Both occur in the circulating erythrocytes as well as internal organs. The intra-erythrocytic form of H. waltairensis n. sp. reach a maximum size of 14·5 × 5·0/μm and was sausage-shaped. The early trophozoites found in blood as well as internal organs contain pink stained granules at the poles. Capsule is absent. Schizogony occurs in liver, lungs and bone marrow. The largest schizont measuring 14·0 × 11·0μm was found in liver. The gametocytes ofH. ganapatii n. sp. which are intra-erythrocytic reach a maximum size of 11·5 × 4·5 μm and become sausage-shaped. Capsule is absent. Schizogonic stages are found inside erythrocytes as well as in lungs and liver. The largest schizont in lung measured 11·0 × 9·5μm while that in the liver measured 7·0 × 6·5/μm both of which contain 24 nuclei.
pp 373-376 July 1981
Sphenoclea zeylanica, a non-host of rice root nematodes,Hirschmanniella spp., was found to control them to 95% within 6 weeks and 99% within 8 weeks in a heavily infested field. Water extracts of shoot and the entire plant at highest concentration were toxic toHirschmanniella oryzae at 48 hr exposure whereas that of root were not toxic. But whenH oryzae were picked into a tube where the plant was grown hydroponically, 95% of the nematodes were killed at 60 hr exposure.
pp 377-380 July 1981
A new cestode species belonging to the subgenusRaillietina Stiles and Orleman (1926) of the genusRaillietina Fuhrmann (1920) representing the family Davaineidae Fuhrmann (1907) was obtained from the intestine of a domestic fowl,Gallus gallus domesticus at Chandigarh, India.
pp 381-388 July 1981
The present paper reports the fecundity(F) ofRasbora daniconius in relation to the total body length (L), total body weight (W) and gonad weight (G) of the fish. Catch data indicated a predominance of females during the months of July–August which is the breeding season of this species. The collected fish in the length range of 7·7–11·7 cm bore a linear relationship with their weights. The fecundity of the fish ranged from 580 to 11040 eggs fish−1. Fecundity exhibited a linear relationship withL, G andW. By subjecting the data to multiple regression analyses, a new and convenient method of best predictions ofF inR. daniconius in relation toL alone has been developed.
pp 389-405 July 1981
The functional anatomy of the egg and the nymphal morphology of the teak tingid,Pontanus puerilis Drake and Poor have been described. The outer surface of the exochorionic collar presents a series of serrations which serve to grip the plant tissue firmly. The principal and accessory aeropyles with their extension canals and the so-called “micropyles” all serve the purpose of respiration. The length of the column varies in accordance with the length of the exochorionic collar and on that basis two types of eggs ofP. puerilis have been recognised, viz., short operculate eggs that are deposited during the months of August-October and long operculate eggs, deposited during February. Total cessation of growth of the marginal tubercle of the metathorax; translocation of the meso and meta thoracic and 2nd abdominal tubercles on to the wing pads and the disappearance of the 3rd abdominal marginal tubercles in the 5th instar nymph are significant features.
pp 407-416 July 1981
In the larvicidal fishesAplocheilus lineatus andMacropodus cupanus investigations on the rate of gastric digestion reveal that interspecific variations are apparent; however, within the species, digestion rate is not significantly altered by fish size provided the amount of food supplied is sufficient to fill the stomach. Gastric depletion is directly related to temperature, increasing temperature elevating the rate of digestion.
pp 417-426 July 1981
A detailed study of the embryonic and larval development of the major carp hybrid, rohu-mrigal, has been made and compared with the parents. The development of the hybrid was normal and more or less similar to that of the parental species, with only a few minor differences. The hybrid larvae exhibited intermediate range between the parental species in morphological features, such as nature of lips, presence of barbels and the shape of the caudal spot.
pp 427-431 July 1981
Biochemical studies revealed the existence of proteolytic activity inGastrothylax crumenifer with two peaks at pH 3·0 and at pH 6·0. The higher activity occurred at pH 3·0. The effect of various chemicals on the proteolytic enzyme is discussed.
pp 433-444 July 1981
Six species of Echinostomatid cercariae were found in freshwater molluscs of Kerala including three previously described forms, namely, cercariaEchinostoma revolution (Frölich 1802) Looss 1899, cercariaEchinostoma malayanum Leiper 1911 and cercariaEchinostoma ivaniosi Mohandas 1973. CercariaE. revolutum is redescribed with the report of a new intermediate host,Idiopoma dissimilis (Müller).Cercaria sp. VI Kerala n.sp. is characterised by 47 collar spines (5+7+23+7+5), three penetration glands on either side of the oesophagus, 65–85 upwardly directed spines dorsal to prepharynx and 18 pairs of flame cells in groups of three.Cercaria sp. VII Kerala n.sp. has 45 collar spines (5+6+23+6+5), two types of integumentary papillae, four pairs of penetration glands posterior to the ventral sucker and 21 pairs of flame cells in groups of three.Cercaria sp. VIII Kerala n.sp. possesses 51 collar spines (5+6+29+6+5), two types of integumentary papillae, two pairs of penetration glands posterior to the ventral sucker and 21 pairs of flame cells in groups of three. For all the three new species,Lymnaea luteola ftypica (Lamarck) acts as the first and second intermediate hosts.
pp 445-452 July 1981
Data are presented to indicate the nature of host-specificity shown by the juveniles of the isopod,Alitropus typus M. Edwards and the biochemical changes in certain host fishes attending the infestation. Even though specific host preference is apparently lacking, the frequency of attack on different fishes varies. Thus among the 9 species of fishes tried,Anabas testudimus (Bloch) was found to be most severely attacked by these isopods whereasPuntius sarana subnasutus (Val.) was comparatively less affected. Proximate analyses on 5 different species of fish, viz.,Channa orientalis (Cuvier),Anabas testudineus (Bloch),Lebistes reticulatus (Peters);Tilapia mossambica (Peters) andMacropodus cupanus (Cuv. and Val.) suggest depletion of biochemical constituents on account of infestation. An increase in the moisture content in the infested fish from those of the non-infested ones was noticed with the increase ranging from 1·19% in the femaleT. mossambica to 10·15% in the maleL. reticulatus. A drastic fall in protein, glycogen and lipid was also observed in the infested fish tested. Among the various fishes tried, the minimum depletion of glycogen occurred inC. orientalis (1·44%) and the maximum in the femaleM. cupanus (7·16%). In the case of lipid, the maleL. reticulatus showed only marginal reduction (0·96%) whereasC. orientalis showed 13·20% depletion. Regarding protein, the maximum reduction after infestation was observed inA. testudineus (20·91%). The possible reasons for the depletion of these biochemical constituents in the infested fish are discussed in detail.
pp 453-461 July 1981
Courtship and mating behaviour is described in the Indian soft-shell turtle,Lissemys punctata punctata. The behaviour comprises three distinct phases: courtship, mounting and intromission. Back to back position before termination of coitus seems unique (among reptiles) to the species. Keywords.Lissemys punctata punctata; courtship; mounting intromission; bobs; hyperextended.
pp 463-471 July 1981
Socio-behavioural components (fighting, chasing, scent marking, thumping, digging and kick back) were studied in a group of Indian desert gerbil,Meriones hurrianae in a Rattery (13 × 7 m). Male gerbils were found to be more active and performed all the aggressive acls at a higher frequency (F< 0.01) than the females, indicating that social organization inM. hurrianae is male-dominated. It was revealed that this gerbil is not contact-prone in nature and the associates in a social group avoid the dominant ones. The dominant male accepts sub-dominant individuals, whereas only the dominant female performs aggressive acts. The evolution of sociability inM. hurrianae has an adaptive value of self-regulatory mechanism of population control.
pp 473-482 July 1981
Descriptions of 5 new species of Pteromalidae from the Orient are presented. The species described arePropicrocytus indicus, Colotrechnus agromyzae, Mokrzeckia menzeli, Gastrancistrus mangiferae andPsilocera ghanii. A key to species ofPropicrocytus andMokrzeckiaare given. WhileM. orientalis is recorded for the first time from Thailand,Colotrechnus is the first record from the Orient.
pp 483-493 July 1981
Anatomical and histological studies of the alimentary organs of sixteen reduviids, with diverse food habits indicate structural variations. The terminal part of the tubular second midgut of these predaceous insects has a permanent sac-like region with distinct histology, concerned with absorption of digested food. In addition, the digestive system is characterised by a reduced pylorus with pyloric-intestinal and pyloric-rectal valves, surrounded by flask-shaped ampullae of the four malpighian tubules. The ampullary cells with their filamentous apices and with fibrillar cytoplasmic processes are concerned with. water absorption. Commonly in all these terrestrial insects, the anterior end of the rectum also bears a well-developed, inverted cup-like rectal gland, the cells of which also absorb water from the excreta stored in the impermeable, intima lined rectum. Members of Ectrichodiinae show simple ampullary cells and a unique rectum, reported for the first time among reduviids with scattered dome-shaped glandular cells as found in Homoptera and in some phytophagous Heteroptera. The simple nature of the alimentary organs indicates its primitive organization within the reduviid subfamilies.