Volume 89, Issue 6
November 1980, pages 515-606
pp 515-525 November 1980
Changes in home range size in 7 groups of rhesus monkeys were observed in urban and forest habitats in north India. In three groups home range size decreased due to either emigration or trapping of the alpha male. The average reduction in home range size was 30.48%. In one group the home range decreased from 1·12 km2 to 0·46 km2 after the removal of all group members except alpha male. The home ranges of 3 groups increased slightly due to disturbance caused (a) by elephants, (b) by trapping and (c) by conspecific group. The increase in the home range was for a short period (less than 15 days) as long as the disturbing variable was present. However, the decrease in home range due to loss of alpha male was almost permanent. The importance of the personality of alpha male and his personal experiences in the maintenance of home range has been discussed.
pp 527-530 November 1980
Investigations on the possible hazards of the use of internally administered radioisotopes in human medicine either as therapeutic or diagnostic agents before or during child bearing age are of late gaining importance. The present investigation has been taken up to screen the effects of sulphur-35 on spermatogonia.
CBA pregnant mice were injected (ip) with a dose of 20µ Ci of sulphur-35 on 3·5, 10·5 or 15·5 days of gestation. At the similar intervals pregnant mice injected with physiological saline were kept for control data. All the animals were allowed to litter and F1 male progeny were killed at maturity at the age of 10 weeks and the testes collected. Sections of both the testes were prepared and stained by PAS-haematoxylin technique and the survival of spermatogonia types A, Int and B and preleptotene spermatocytes was evaluated. There was a significant reduction in all the cell types in the sulphur-35 treated animals. Thus the results indicate the cell-killing effect of radionuclide.
pp 531-535 November 1980
Two new species of microsporidians,Nosema limbata n. sp. andThelohania limbata n. sp. from the adipose tissue of the larvae ofTramea limbata collected from the dairy farm area, Visakhapatnam and the Andhra University Campus at Waltair respectively are described and their systematic position discussed.
pp 537-542 November 1980
The influence of ambient oxygen concentrations on random (spontaneous) activity was tested in four freshwater teleosts (mullet,Rhinomugil corsula, cichlid,Tilapia mossambica, minor carp,Puntius sarana and goldfish,Carassius auratus) at various ambient oxygen concentrations below air saturation at two temperatures 30 and 35° C. A modification of Fry’s respirometer and fish activity counter was used for the experiments. The initial ambient oxygen gradually fell from air saturation to reach the asphyxial level (the concentration at which the fish begin to lose equilibrium) by the depletion of oxygen due to the respiration of the fish itself. Among the four species tested, only inTilapia mossambica the random activity decreased with decrease in ambient oxygen whereas the other three species indicated a reverse trend. The differences in responses of random activity to ambient oxygen may be due to a dichotomy in behavioural evolution and may have a major role in the survival of the species.
pp 543-549 November 1980
The effects of two levels of infection with 20 and 50 cysticercoids ofRaillietina tetragona (Cestoda) on certain aspects of protein metabolism of White Leghorn chickens were studied for a period of 8 weeks post-infection. Infection had no effect on the total protein content of liver while that in intestinal tissues was slightly reduced. The free amino acid nitrogen in the blood was not altered during infection. The serum total proteins and the serum albuminglobulin ratio were reduced significantly in infected birds. The hypoproteinemia was mainly due to the hypoalbuminemia. The infected birds gained significantly less weight than the uninfected ones. The lowered serum proteins is correlated with the lowered weight gain. Pathological changes were more pronounced in birds infected with 50 cysticercoids and during the period from 4 to 6 weeks post-infection.
pp 551-556 November 1980
InPostelectrotermes nayari, a tergal gland is located on each of the 9th and 10th abdominal tergite of the female reproductives. The two glands do not differ much in size and histology. The most significant behavioural pattern of the reproductives is tandem running. Evidence for the release of an excitatory substance is obtained mainly by studying the post-flight-behaviour of the reproductives. Experiments with ether extracts of the different parts of the body show that males are attracted to the extract of the 9th and 10th abdominal tergites of the female.
pp 557-562 November 1980
Karyomorphological studies were made on males ofGarra lamta (Fam : Cyprinidae) and on both sexes ofMystus cavassius (Fam : Bagridae) from their kidney metaphase complements.Garra lamta had 2n = 50 chromosomes alignable into 25 homomorphic pairs comprising 3 pairs of metacentrics, 9 pairs of submetacentrics, 6 pairs of subtelocentrics and 7 pairs of telocentrics (NF = 86).Mystus cavassius had 2n = 58 chromosomes in both sexes and their karyotypes revealed 29 pairs of homomorphic chromosomes consisting of 7 pairs of metacentrics, 13 pairs of submetacentrics, 2 pairs of subtelocentrics and 7 pairs of telocentrics (NF = 102). No sex chromosome was identifiable in any sex of the two species.
pp 563-574 November 1980
The two openings of the stomach lie parallel to each other in both the species since the gastroduodenal junction is directed craniad. The fundic caecum ofTaphozous longimanus forms a distinct chamber due to the presence of shelves, one projecting from the dorsal side and the other from the ventral side. The cardiac glands ofTaphozous longimanus are unique and composed almost entirely of mucous secreting cells. These glands ofRhinopoma kinneari have very deep foveolae. Pepsinogen cells are abundant in the fundicregion of the stomach of both the species. There is no pepsinogen cell in the transitional zone and the pyloric glands contain mostly mucous secreting cells. The interstitial mucous cells of the cardiac glands and a part of the cranial half of the fundic caecum inRhinopoma kinneari contain acidic sulphated mucins. The histochemical characteristics of the gastric glands in the two bats have been described.
pp 575-578 November 1980
Studies on the innate capacity ofHeliothis armigera to increase themselves on bengalgram,Cicer arietinum L., lab-lab,Dolichos lab-lab L. and redgram,Cajanus cajan L were made. The net reproductive rate representing the total female births was 208·56, 236·78 and 164·84, the population increased with an infinitesimal rate of 0·1255, 0·1395 and 0·1340 and finite rate of 1·33, 1·50 and 1·44 per female per day and a generation was completed in 42·56, 39·20 and 38·10 days on bengalgram, lab-lab and redgram respectively. The population of reaching a stable age distribution comprised approximately 99% of immature stages on all the hosts.
pp 579-586 November 1980
The population trend of three milkweed bugs,Spilostethus pandurus (Scop.),Spilostethus hospes (Fabr.) andCaenocoris nerii (Germar) are studied in relation to climatic condtions over a period of two years on their principal hostCalotropis gigantea (L.). Of these milkweed bugs.Spilostethus pandurus is and occasional pest of several food and cash crops in India. All the three species are noted on the milkweed throughout the year. Their abundance shows regular seasonal variation.Spilostethus pandurus andCaenocoris nerii are abundant during the hotter months (March-August) and contrastinglySpilostethus hospes is more numerous during colder seasons (January–February and October–December). The variation in the population due to environmental factors is statistically highly significant. Of the various environmental factors maximum temperature is an important limiting factor in the population levels and distribution of all these three species.
pp 587-601 November 1980
Toxicity and persistence of five organophosphorus insecticides following one summer spray in 1975 and two in 1976 at 0·05% conc. (400 gm a.i./ha) on apple cv ‘red delicious’ were evaluated againstQuadraspidiotus perniciosus Comstock at Solan, Himachal Pradesh. Fenitrothion was found to be highly toxic to the crawlers of the scale; methyl-parathion and diazinon proved to be intermediate in toxicity while phosalone and malathion respectively were less toxic compounds. Phosalone was highly persistent (ca 2 weeks) but did not provide enough protection to the fruits against the pest insect owing to its low intrinsic toxicity. The deposits formed on apple by fenitrothion, methyl-parathion and diazinon were relatively less persistent but provided 23 to 27, 14 to 18 and 10 to 15 days protection respectively to the fruits. The fruits were found safe for consumers use after 20–22 days following the application of fenitrothion, 14–16 days of phosalone, 12–13 days of diazinon, 9–11 days of methyl-parathion and less than 1 day when malathion was sprayed. All the insecticide residues were within the acceptable limits at the time of harvest.
pp 603-606 November 1980
Movements of whole body, or pivoting, dominate the early orienting behaviour of infant gerbils,Tatera indica indica (Hardwicke). Progression is then accomplished by creeping (4–12 days), which is superseded by walking. The early responses are more important for survival. The young incapacitated later (age > 5 days) are thus reared successfully.