Volume 89, Issue 3
May 1980, pages 197-310
pp 197-213 May 1980
Isozyme variation at six enzyme loci has been studied involving nine members ofDrosophila nasuta subgroup, by employing polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic technique. Alleles at three loci namely Acph, Aph and α-Est are found to be highly polymorphic; whereas at β-Est locus the alleles are less variable while at α-Gpdh and To loci, the alleles are found to be least variable. Null alleles are encountered in low frequencies at α-Est, β-Est and α-Gpdh enzyme loci. The allelic frequencies obtained at the six enzyme loci have been utilised as a yardstick to measure the extent of genetic relationship between the species studied. The genetic identity and genetic distance between these closely-related species have been estimated by adopting the Nei’s formula. These findings have been discussed with reference to earlier cytogenetic and hybridisation studies made on this subgroup.
pp 215-219 May 1980
Treatments of equivalent wt./wt. mixtures of foods-millet and maize flours, or millet, maize and wheat flours;-with zinc phosphide (4 mg/10 g food) not only make the ratsRattus rattus L. averse to eating the original baits, but also their components.
Practical implications of such association of ‘bait-shyness’ to components of the original baits, are discussed.
pp 221-225 May 1980
The study was aimed at detecting the development of bait shyness towards zinc phosphide and vacor inMus platythrix and its persistence. Both the rodenticides induced poison aversion after single ingestion of sub lethal quantities, while bait shyness towards zinc phosphide lasted 170 days, vacor produced poison shyness persisted upto 120 days. Based on these results it may be concluded that poisoningM. platythrix with zinc phosphide and vacor should be done for a single day only and residual population be killed by other means. Secondly control ofM. platythrix by zinc phosphide poisoning should not be repeated till 170 days and that of vacor till 120 days.
pp 227-233 May 1980
Funambulus pennanti, the northern palm squirrel preferred wheat in its different forms out of ten cereals and oil seeds offered. It is revealed that the squirrels are selective feeders since out of eleven forms, i.e., whole, cracked, roasted and flour, wheat was found to be most palatable in seven trials followed by bajra (three trials) and jowar once. The addition of vegetable oils, salt and sugar does not enhance the bait acceptance. However, they preferred sugar in comparison to salt, and arachis and sesame oils. Wheat in its whole form is, therefore, recommended for use as a poison base for the control ofF. pennanti. In the absence of wheat, cracked bajra can also be used, which is the next preferred bait. The calorific requirement ofF. pennanti ranges from 16·18 to 34·98 k cal/100 g body weight/day when the bait is provided in single food choice.
pp 235-241 May 1980
Drosophila collections made using traps baited with fermenting bananas from Nagarhole (Western Ghats) yielded a total of 15 species including a new species,Drosophila nagarholensis. Majority of theDrosophila trapped belonged either to themelanogaster orimmigrans species groups of the subgeneraSophophora andDrosophila respectively. The sympatric association and ecological dominance of the members of the two species groups are discussed. The external morphology and internal structures of the new species are described. Its taxonomic status and relationships are presented.
pp 243-246 May 1980
The genusZygeilla is being reported for the first time in India in this paper. Previously one speciesmelanocrania was placed erroneously in the genusAraneus. But our examination has revealed that it should be placed in the genusZygeilla. Gravely collected this species from Barkuda Island (Chilka Lake), Orissa and deposited in Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta. We have got another new species of this genus, namelyZygeilla indica, which is described and illustrated in this paper.
pp 247-252 May 1980
One new speciesNeoscona mukerjei sp. nov. belonging to the family Araneidae is described and its colour variation discussed.
pp 253-273 May 1980
Four species ofAcetes, viz.A. indicus, A. erythraeus, A. japonicus andA. sibogae are reported from the estuarine system of river Krishna on the east coast of India. Their systematics is discussed in the light of intra-specific variations. The synonymy ofA. cochinensis withA. japonicus is corroborated.A. australis, A. sibogalis andA. orientalis are all shown to be junior synonyms ofA. sibogae. A key to the identification of species ofAcetes known from India is given.
pp 275-286 May 1980
Growth rate, instantaneous growth rate and energy budget ofPila globosa in an artificial pond were estimated using marking and recapture method. A decrease in growth rate and instantaneous growth rate were noticed with the increase in body weight. The life span ofP. globosa assessed was more than 4 years. The rates of feeding, absorption and metabolism of different weight-classes have also been studied.
pp 287-292 May 1980
The morphology of the different stages in the life-history of a new dicyemid mesozoan,Dodecadicyema loligoi n.gen., n.sp. from the renal appendages ofLoligo sp. is described.
pp 293-295 May 1980
A new species ofProteromonas, P. grassei n. sp. from the gut of the wall lizard,Hemidactylus prashadi Smith is described and its systematic position is discussed.
pp 297-301 May 1980
A prosogonotrematid digenean (Trematoda) obtained from the marine fishMonacanthus monoceros (Day) of Bay of Bengal is referable to the speciesProsogonotrema carangi Velasquez, 1961. But extreme variability in structures like vitelline tubules, intestinal caeca and/or measurements of suckers and body parts have prompted Nasir to propose drastic synonymy reducing all eight hitherto known species to the typeP. bilabiatum. P. carangi however appears to be distinct. The familyProsogonotrematidae is reviewed including the new genusBhaleraoia Srivastava 1948 described fully by Sahai and Srivastava.
pp 303-310 May 1980
The annual reproductive changes in the testes and epididymis of the soft-furred field rat,Millardia meltada have been investigated. The males of this species are sexually quiescent between January and April. Two peaks of highest reproductive activity occur annually in October and December. Interstitial cells show seasonal activity which approximately parallels the condition of the testes and epididymis. A correlation of these changes with the environmental conditions during 1977–78 indicates that the lowest temperature, shortest daylength and natural conditions occurring after the rainfall are congenial for reproduction of this species.