Volume 89, Issue 2
April 1980, pages 91-196
pp 91-99 April 1980
No diurnal fluctuation in temperature and relative humidity inside the mound ofOdontotermes obesus (Rambur) has been noticed and the fluctuations through the year were within a narrow range (4° C; 4%). Sudden fall in temperature from the maximum in May to the minimum in June, July and August was probably due to emergence of alates in June.
pp 101-108 April 1980
The behaviour of forty infants in five free-living groups of bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata), was studied from birth to fifteen months of age. The total age period was divided into seven age-levels. The percentage of 20-sec intervals for each category and pattern of behaviour is reported for each age-level. With the growing up of the infant, the environment-oriented behaviours increased, whereas interactions with the mother decreased.
pp 109-112 April 1980
The changes in the levels of total anthrone positive substances glycogen and glucose and the activities of phosphorylase, lactate dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase were studied in thein situ heart of the scorpionH. fulvipes, based on the theme of acceleration and inhibition. TAPS and glucose showed appreciable depletion in the accelerated hearts and conservation in the inhibited hearts. Glycogen depletion in the accelerated hearts is not significant while conservation in the inhibited hearts is significant. Both active and total phosphorylases as well as the combined ratio showed increasing trend with increase in heart rate andvice versa. The role of carbohydrates as metabolic fuel to sustain the heart beat is also discussed.
pp 113-125 April 1980
Nine natural populations of Indian acridids belonging to seven species were cytologically analysed to study the numerical variations of chromosomes in the male germline cells. Of these, two allopatric populations ofA. humbertianus and two ofO. nitidula were chosen for intraspecies interpopulational studies. Both aneuploidy and polyploidy were encountered as intraindividual variations. Two kinds of polyploid cells—one with and another without multivalents—were found to occur. The former signified the occurrence of premeiotic mitotic breakdown of spindle whereas the latter was due to the failure of cytokinesis. While many tetraploid cells without multivalents successfully consummated meiosis producing dimegalous spermatids, tetraploid cells with multivalents and higher polyploids degenerated without completing meiosis. Analysis of quantitative data indicated that failure of cytokinesis is more frequent than spindle in premeiotic mitotic divisions. The frequency of second meiotic polyploid cells was significantly higher than those of first meiosis. The probable reasons for the increased incidence have been discussed. Comparative analysis of qualitative and quantitative data of these anomalies for the allopatric populations ofA. humbertianus andO. nitidula showed that the population structure and breeding systems have an impact on the origin and incidence of the numerical chromosomal variations.
pp 127-131 April 1980
The morphology of the mouthparts ofRana tigrina tadpoles is studied. The development starts after hatching with distinct mouth opening and is followed by paired beaks and labial fringes. The horny teeth then start differentiating in both the labial fringes and by addition of successive rows of teeth the full complement of larval dentition is developed. The mouthparts persist upto stage 50 and by stage 51 both the beaks and teeth are shed and the labial fringes are considerably resorbed.
pp 133-140 April 1980
Morphological and histochemical changes in the follicular epithelium have been studied during folliculogenesis in the crow (Corvus splendens) ovary. The follicular epithelium is single-layered in primordial and early previtellogenic, pseudostratified in late-previtellogenic, multilayered in early vitellogenic and again becomes single-layered in late-vitellogenic oocytes. Two types of follicle cells have been distinguished on the basis of their structure and cytochemical properties. Some of the follicle cells separate from the follicular epithelium and invade the ooplasm where they seem to be reabsorbed by the latter. The amount of lipids and proteins increases in the follicular epithelium as the oocyte grows. Simultaneously the nature of lipids and proteins changes, as revealed by various histochemical reactions. The follicular epithelium, at all stages of follicular growth, shows moderate reactions for acid phosphatase and NAD-diaphorase. The significance of the structural and histochemical changes in the follicular epithelium during oogenesis have been discussed.
pp 141-145 April 1980
A new species of histozic amoeba,Malamoeba indica parasitic in the epithelial cells of the midgut and the lumen of the Malpighian tubules ofPoecilocera picta is described. The trophozoites reach a maximum size of 13·5×7·0 m and divide by binary fission after the endosome breaks down into chromatin masses. The cysts are ellipsoid with an outer thin refractile wall and measure 14·5×8·6µm in the fresh condition and 13·5×7–5µm in the fixed and stained condition.
pp 147-153 April 1980
In the crepuscular fossorial roachTherea petiveriana (L.), the nerves from the pair of lateral ocelli join to form a cross bar that remains semidetached from the brain and the two nervi corporis cardiaci primus, having their association with cross bar, run posteriorly on either side of the nervus recurrens. The distribution of the neurosecretory cells and their association with the ocellar nerve and disposition of the endocrine system are described and the significance of such an association in the context of a crepuscular habit of the roach explained.
pp 155-163 April 1980
Full illustrated descriptions are presented of the copepodid stage ofPseudocharopinus narcinae (Pillai),Isobranchia appendiculata Heegaard andBrachiella trichiuri Gnanamuthu. The structure of the copepodid ofP. narcinae is similar to that ofP. dentatus (Wilson). The copepodids of bothI. appendiculata andB. trichiuri are identical with regard to the structure of the second antenna, first maxilla and second maxilla. This structural similarity of the copepodids ofI. appendiculata andB. trichiuri indicate the phylogenetic position of theBrachiella andClavella groups within the family Lernaeopodidae.
pp 165-170 April 1980
The effects of food availability on the bioenergetics and the body composition of the cyprinidRasbora daniconius (Ham.) have been described. During the 15-day experimental period, fish in the weight range of 475 to 1660 mg were fed daily onTubifex tubifex for different durations. The food intake increased from 7·96±2·323 mg dry/fish/day for fish exposed to food for 2 hr to 11·57±0·757 mg dry/fish/day for fish fedad libitum diet. For the same series of fish, the feeding rate also increased. Growth of fish expressed as mg gain in dry weight/fish/day increased with increases in food intake. However, the food conversion efficiency was highly variable in relation to the daily food intake or feeding rate.
pp 171-181 April 1980
Diel fluctuations of temperature, dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, pH, total alkalinity and chlorosity in the Shatt al-Arab River and the Ashar Canal at Basrah, Iraq were studied. The study covered three 24-hour periods in three different months. Appreciable diurnal changes in the physico-chemical conditions and considerable heterogeneity were noted at the three stations selected. The ranges of diurnal differences between maximum and minimum values of all the parameters studied are provided stationwise.
pp 183-190 April 1980
Both zinc phosphide and vacor induced almost similar changes in the haematology ofBandicota bengalensis andTatera indica. Lymphocytes decline and an increase was seen in the counts of red blood cells (RBC) and neutrophils, bleeding and clotting times. Per cent weight loss was more in zinc phosphide poisonedB. bengalensis. The variations exhibited by the two species and sexes indicate gerbils, particularly females as most resistant and female lesser bandicoots to be the most susceptible to the poisons tested.
pp 191-196 April 1980
Seasonal variations in the various biochemical constituents of muscle and liver were studied in the catfish,H. fossilis (Bloch). The fat content of the muscle showed two peak periods of accumulation—one during November and other during May–July. Liver was more rich in fat than the muscle and it was also characterised by two distinct phases of high fat contents in May and in September. Moisture variations were found related inversely to the quantitative changes in the fat content. Protein and ash contents were also greatly influenced by seasons. In general protein and ash values were low during winter and high during summer or monsoon months. The seasonal cycles of various biochemical constituents in the two tissues of the fish seemed to be governed partly by feeding and partly by the cycle of maturation and depletion of gonad.