Volume 88, Issue 2
April 1979, pages 91-162
pp 91-93 April 1979
Acid phosphatase is monogenically inherited inDrosophila bipectinata and this gene is monoallelic in the population maintained at Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi. The acid phosphatase band ofbipectinata shows the same mobility in starch gel as does the band determined byAcph-11.05 allele ofmalerkotliana. Hybrid flies betweenbipectinata andAcph-110.5malerkotliana show only a single band with the same mobility as does that of each of the parents. Hybrid flies betweenbipectinata andAcph-11.0 orAcph-10.95 allele ofmalerkotliana show an additional intermediate band in addition to the two parental bands. The additional band is a heterodimer and shows that acid phosphatase is a dimer inbipectinata and thatbipectinata andmalerkotliana acid phosphatase protomers possess identical stereospecific properties. It is concluded thatAcph-1 genes inbipectinata andmalerkotliana are homologous.
pp 95-98 April 1979
The fecundity ranges from 2,200 in a specimen of 12·1 cm TL to 33,873 in a specimen of 22·3 cm TL. The relationship between fecundity and total length is curvilinear and is expressed as: logF = 0·55024 + 2·83086 logL. When the calculated fecundity at corresponding length is calculated from equations for the Guntur (16·18 N, 80·29 E) and Aligarh (27·54 N, 78·06 E) samples, it is observed that in all length groups from Aligarh, the fecundity is less.
pp 99-106 April 1979
The sex ratio ofC. punctata has been studied over a two-year period. The Chi-square test was applied to test the significance of the differences in the proportion of males in the monthly samples of each year and ascertain whether the observed sex ratio differs significantly from the theoretical 1 : 1 ratio. The data show that in most length groups males outnumber females. The relation between the age and length attained by the two sexes has been discussed.
pp 107-113 April 1979
Individual and population net efficiencies of trophic levels of tropical freshwater pond community increased with increasing trophic levels. The individual and population net efficiencies of this study are higher compared to temperate forms. The assimilation and ecological efficiencies are calculated for different trophic levels and presented. A new term foodweb efficiency is coined, defined and calculated for the first time and presented. The significance of foodweb efficiencies is also discussed.
pp 115-118 April 1979
Acid and alkaline phosphatases were estimated biochemically inGaneo tigrinum an intestinal parasite ofRana cyanophlyctis. Four peaks of phosphatase activity were established at pH values of 4·5, 7·0, 10·0 and 11·5. It was observed that the acid phosphatase was of higher concentration than alkaline phosphatase.
pp 119-124 April 1979
Proteolytic activity increased in brain, gastrocnemius muscle and liver of frog due toHeterometrus fulvipes envenomation. Structural protein content decreased and soluble protein content increased in experimental muscle (EM) and the change of these in contralateral muscle (CM), brain and liver was insignificant. Total free amino acid level decreased in EM and increased in CM, brain and liver. Ammonia level increased significantly in all the three tissues while urea content decreased. All these changes were maximum around 24 hr after envenomation and thereafter tended towards normalcy except in EM where there was no tendency towards normal level.
pp 125-129 April 1979
The rats,Rattus rattus L., rejected oily foods previously mixed with zinc phosphide; but cereal equivalents, or non-oily foods were avoided only partially. Groundnut oil, though of neutral flavour, also exerted thus some masking effect on the taste of cereal bases.
pp 131-135 April 1979
In laboratory enclosures, male Indian gerbilsTatera indica indica (Hardwicke), board a cereal, or wheat, for as long as the weight lost on previous diet of vegetables is not recovered. The female gerbils exhibit no such response.
pp 137-144 April 1979
In spite of great evidence of increased protein synthesis during cold acclimation in many poikilotherms, little is known about protein turnover rates during thermal stress. Studies on protein levels and its catabolism in the different skeletal muscles ofRana cyanophlictis revealed muscle specific compensation to temperature. The variability in the adaptation of different muscles is attributed to trophic influences of the nervous system primarily and secondarily to acclimation.
pp 145-151 April 1979
The nerve distribution, esterase location and the characterisation of esterases has been carried out in two species of the genusProsthodendrium. In both the worms nervous system consists of a pair of cerebral ganglia connected by cerebral commissure. From the ganglia three pairs of nerves run anteriorly and three pairs towards the posterior side. Receptors and fine inter-connections of major nerves have also been studied. The enzyme responsible for hydrolising the substrate 5-bromoindoxyl acetate and acetyl thiocholine iodide is found to be cholinesterase. While studying the location of esterases the significance of the colour developed in various parts of the two species has been discussed.
pp 153-162 April 1979
Quantitative changes in DNA, RNA and protein during the entire developmental period—including embryogenesis, larval and pupal stages — in the house-fly were determined. The development of housefly from egg to adult takes around 8·5 days at 35 ± 1° C. During the course of embryonic development toal RNA and protein decreased. On the other hand, total DNA increased and registered peak value in 4 hr old eggs. The calorific content of the developing eggs showed a decrease from 5649 cal/g dry weight to 5361 cal/g dry weight indicating the utility of energy reserves during embryonic development. Matured larvae registered high calorific content (6260 cal/g dry weight).
The ratios of DNA/DW (dry weight), RNA/DW, Protein/DW, RNA/DNA and DNA/protein were determined from the data obtained to serve as biochemical indices of changes in development. Protein/DW levels showed variations during larval and pupal stages, increased levels being correlated with the synthesis of new cuticle, etc., prior to ecdysis and the histogenesis of adult tissue prior to emergence. RNA/DW levels were highest in the young larvae but declined rapidly during development. Sharp increase was also noticed in pupal stage. DNA/DW levels were very low in the egg but reached highest level in the larvae just emerged and then declined during further development. RNA/DNA ratio was high in the egg and in the larvae between 30–60 hr of development.