Volume 87, Issue 12
December 1978, pages 293-404
pp 293-319 December 1978
The economically important family Eurytomidae which include both primary and secondary parasites as well as phytophagous species hasnot been well understood. In this paper an effort has been made to key out tribes. Several new genera and new species have been described and these are mostly from the New World.
pp 321-327 December 1978
Changes in the proximate chemical composition and calorific value. of muscle during storage ofO. punctatus were investigated. The storage of fish was characterized by a gradual decline in the concentrations of protein and water, and a rise in the fat content. The muscle ash content was not found to follow any speeific pattern of variations. The loss in calories, in terms of protein value, was relatively greater in the fishes kept at the higher temperature.
pp 329-337 December 1978
Two new cercariae namelyC. chinahatensis andC. chelawaensis have been described fromIndoplanorbis exustus. C. chinahatensis belongs to ‘Echinatoides’ group of echinostome cercariae and it differs from other cercariae of the same group in number and position of penetration glands, number of flame cells and number of collar spines. The other cercariaC. chelawaensls belongs to ‘Pigmentata’ group of amphistome cercariae and it differs from other cercariae of the pigmentata group in the presence of an oesophageal bulb, in the presence of a median diverticulum on the transverse connection of the excretory system and in the position and shape of the eye spots.
pp 339-347 December 1978
Experimental data on weight/volume and water regulatory capacity of a littoral oligochaete,Pontodrilus bermudensis Beddard are presented. The results presented are of the weight/volume and water regulatory capacities under heterosmotic media ranging from 5 to 30‰ for a period of 72 h or more. The magnitude of the increase in weight is inversely proportional to the external medium concentration. The final weights attained are higher in lower salinities and lower in higher salinities. The weight/volume regulatory capacities of the worm are comparable to those reported in a number of brackish/estuarine polychaetes.
The changes in water content under heterosmotic media support the findings of its weight/volume regulatory capacities. The worm showed a narrow range of variation in percentage body water content under heterosmotic media from 5 to 30‰ The regression slope for water content change compares favourably with those reported in some polychaetes.
pp 349-355 December 1978
Measuring the width of the head capsule ofHeliothis armigera Hbn. at different stages of development larvae fall into five well defined group each characteristic of an instar, when reared on alfalfa (Medicago sativa) leaves and sorghum earhead (sorghum vulgare) at a constant temperature of 26 ± 1°C. Przibram’s rule cannot be applied to increase in the linear dimensions of larva in its successive stages. However, variations in the value of the linear progression factor show that Przibrarm’s progression principle is of doubtful significance in the case of this pest.
pp 357-360 December 1978
A new species ofDurgades distanti is described with illustrations. All the species of the genus are represented and a key presented.
pp 361-370 December 1978
Stereotaxic implantation of 200μg cortisone pellet in agar were placed in the median eminence region in male albino rats of Holtzman strain. A group of cortisone implanted animals were exposed to cold stress (8±1°C)and the other group was kept in the animal house (25±2·C). After 3 and 5 days of implantation, the animals were autopsied and the changes in histology of the pars distalis and pars intermedia were studied. Hypertrophy of basophils was observed in the implanted group and the additional stress of cold resulted in gradual degranulation of ACTH cells by the third day and complete abolition of ACTH cells with infarction by the end of fifth day. A significant increase and degranulation of cells in the parts intermedia could be observed in the cortisone implanted, cold stressed group as compared to those kept in the animal house. These groups are compared with the pituitaries of sham operated groups.
pp 371-375 December 1978
Variation in the ovariole number appears significant in providing indices between the total body length of the females and the number of ovarioles. Studies on the post embryonic development of ovaries in acridids being very much restricted, an attempt has been made to correlate the changes in weight of the ovary during post embryonic development, with the stage of development, as well as to establish the correlation coefficient between the weight of the ovary and length of the ovarioles, inEyprepocnemis alacris alacris (Serville).
pp 377-380 December 1978
Changes in glycogen, total proteins, total free amino acids, succinate dehydrogenase, aspartate and alanine aminotransferases were estimated in foot, mantle and hepatopancreas of normal and malathion exposed mussels. All the organicconstituents along with succinate dehydrogenase showed a decrease while the activities of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases were enhanced. The probable significance of the observed changes were correlated with the phenomena of metabolic compensation and co-operativity among enzymes studied, to meet the toxic stress.
pp 381-385 December 1978
The blood parameters like haemoglobin level, hematocrit value and erythrocyte count were estimated in the three air-breathing fishes,Anabas scandens (Cuvier),Ophiocephalus gachua (Hamilton-Buchanan) andMystus vittatus (Bloch).A. scandens possesses a higher haemoglobin level than the other two. Hematocrit values also follow the same trend. Maximum erythrocyte count is also obtained forA. scandens. The higher values of haemoglobin content, hematocrit and erythrocyte counts inA. scandens andO. gachua are suggested to serve as rich oxygen stores simulating diving syndromes among higher vertebrates, besides reflecting an adaptation to the mixed condition of systemic arterial blood.
pp 387-395 December 1978
The population trend of the dusky cotton bug,Oxycarenus laetus Kirby is studied for two years, on three principal hosts namelyAbutilon indicum, Sida acuta andThespesia populnea in relation to climatic variation. Population density varies significantly over the months as shown from the analysis of variance thereby indicating that the population build up is favoured by certain climatic factors. Regression analysis shows that variables such as temperature and relative humidity have very significant effect on the growth of the population. Peak population is recorded during hotter months March–July; the population is at its low ebb during colder winter months November–January. High temperature (35°C–40°C) and moderately high humidity (45–60%) seem to be the favoured climate for rapid growth of the population, whereas very high humidity adversely influence the population as indicated by the negative regression values obtained consistently in both years.
pp 397-404 December 1978
Three new species of gregarines,Gregarina macrotermitis fromMacrotermitis estherae (Desn),Steinina coptotermi fromCoptotermes heimi andAnthorhynchus hanumanthi fromOdontotermes sp. from India have been described and their systematic position is discussed along with that of all the gregarine parasites from termites.