• Volume 87, Issue 3

      March 1978,   pages  1-80

    • A new genus of foraminifera from the cretaceous rocks of South India

      S Sambe Gowda

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      A new genus is erected withCibicides roestae Visser as the genotype. The new genus is named asPraestorrsella indicating its relationship toStorrsella Drooger. Two new species of the new genus,reicheli andariyalurensis, are described and illustrated.

    • Nematode parasites of the slender loris,Loris tardigradus

      R V Krishnamoorthy K Srihari Hafeezur Rahaman G L Rajasekharaiah

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      Occurrence ofPhysaloptera Rud. 1819 (Syn.Chlamydonema sp.) andSubulura Molin 1860 (Syn.Allodapa sp.) in the slender Loris,Loris tardigradus, was not known thus far and this paper reports the occurrence of these two parasites. There was a 35·7% occurrence ofPhysaloptera masoodi in the stomach and a 100% occurrence ofSubulura indica in the large intestine and the vermiform appendix of 14 animals studied. WhilePhysaloptera masoodi developed in the stomach, theSubulura indica did in the appendix. Data on the size and the dimensions of these parasites are tabulated and nematode parasites in the loris and their pathogenicity to the host are discussed.

    • Distribution and abundance of earthworms in Bangalore

      Radha D Kale R V Krishnamoorthy

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      Distribution pattern of 6 genera of earthworms in Bangalore has shown that one species was found dominant in a given locality. Causal factors for such niche differentiation might be seen in the nature of available organic matter in the area. However, the population density of the species is not at all related to the organic matter of the soil.

    • Oxidation of glucose-U-14C and synthesis of glycogen in different tissues of the garden snail,Cryptozona ligulata with reference to aestivation and starvation

      S Krupanidhi K Raghavaiah B Padmanabha Naidu R Ramamurthi

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      The per cent decrease of glycogen content in all the tissues investigated is more in 20-days starved snails than the 4-months aestivated snails when compared to active snails. Recovery of administered glucose-U-14C in the respiratory CO2 is 42·27% in active snails, whereas it is 8·81% and 26·09% in aestivated and starved snails respectively. Maximal levels of incorporation of labelled glucose were found at 18 hr in all the tissues and the rate of incorporation was greatly elevated in the tissues of aestivated and starved snails. The causes for the difference in the rates of incorporation and the utilization of glycogen in active, aestivated and starved snails are discussed.

    • Effect of osmotic stress on parsnervosa and median eminence ofColumba livia (Gmelin)

      S S Hasan K Chandrasekhar

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      The response made by parsnervosa and median eminence of pigeons to osmotic stresses created by sodium chloride and potassium iodide salt solutions have been studied. Parsnervosa of pigeons showed more drainage of AF-positive secretion in response to a higher concentration of saline solution (O·25M) whereas it became refractory to a lower dose of saline (0·15M). It was further observed that a 5 μg/ml dose of iodide affected the parsnervosa partly and while a 10 μg/ml dose failed to bring about any appreciable change. The amount of secretion contained in the median eminence underwent no essential change in response to osmotic stress.

    • Influence of atmospheric conditions and soil temperature on the prevalence of the lance nematode (Hoplolaimus indicus Sher, 1963) in rice fields

      K V Ramana J S Prasad Y Seshagiri Rao

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      Studies on the prevalence ofHoplolaimus indicus, the lance nematode in rice fields revealed 4 distinct peaks of population viz., during the second fortnight of February, first fortnight of August and in the second fortnights of October and December during 1971–72. Average soil temperatures of 20·1° to 25·6°C at 5 cm depth were found optimum for the nematode activity. Low atmospheric temperatures of 22·1° to 23·2°C, high relative humidity (83 to 90%) and dew deposition on foliage were found to be conducive for the migration of the nematode from the soil to foliage of standing crops. The migratory behaviour was further confirmed in inoculations to soils with growing rice plants in pot cultures under green house conditions.

    • Seedling blight of sugarcane — A new disease caused byDrechslera state ofCochliobolus spicifer

      D V Narendra Shantha D’DRS M V N Setty

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      Sugarcane nurseries raised from fluff were found to be infected with a deuteromycetous fungus namelyDrechslera resulting in seedling blight. The causal organism was later identified asDrechslera state ofCochliobolus spicifer, The disease incidence varied from 10–30% and the seedling mortality ranged from 50–95%. Studies were conducted on isolation, symptomatology, etiology. varietal reaction, morphology and identification of the pathogen including some control aspects under laboratory conditions. Etiological studies revealed that there was 8–16% infection of the fluff obtained from different crosses and open pollination. Artificially infected seedlings exhibited the same symptoms that were observed on diseased seedlings under natural conditions. The seedling mortality under artificial inoculation varied from 85–100%. All the four sugarcane varieties tested for their reaction to artificial inoculation were observed to be susceptible but the degree of susceptibility varied. Among 10 chemicals tried for control dithane-M 45, thiride, brassicol, zineb and ziram proved the best in inhibiting more than 50% of the conidial germination and also the growth of the mycelium. Kasumin proved very poor in its fungitoxic property.

    • Functional morphology of the masticatory muscles ofMus musculus L.

      N G Patel

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      The functional morphology of masticatory musclesofMus musculus L. is described. The study suggests that the Mm. masseter andpterygoideus internus act as an adductor of the mandible. The Mm. temporalis works as retractor,pterygoideus externus acts as a protractor and digastricus works as an abductor of the mandible. Among the skull components, zygomatic arch is well formed while the temporal fossa is poorly developed. The influence of muscular pull on the skull components is discussed.

    • Effect of thuricide on rice stem borers

      P Nayak P S Rao S Y Padmanabhan

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      The effect of thuricide, a commercial preparation ofBacillus thuringiensis Berliner var.Kurstaki was studied on different stages of rice stem borersScirpophaga incertulas, Sesamia inferens andChilo auricilius. It was found to be ineffective on the eggs,pupae and adults of these borers. All the agegroups of the larval stages got infected. Thuricide was almost equally effectiveat 1·0, 0·75, O·50and 0·25%concentrations. 1% concentration, sprayed at the time of hatching of the larvae, reduced the incidence of dead hearts by 76·36%, white heads by 67·45% and the number of living larvae inside the tillers by 76·87%. It persisted for 15 days or more under green house conditions.

    • Ecology of fouling bryozoans at Visakhapatnam harbour

      K Satyanarayana Rao P N Ganapati

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      Twelve species of bryozoans occur in the fouling communities at Visakhapatnam Harbour, of which the encrusting cheilostome-Electra bengalensis (Stoliczka) is by far the most common. The horizontal distribution of bryozoans at four selected stations in the harbour is recorded. Quantitative data on the seasonal abundance and settlingrates ofE. bengalensis and some of the prevailing hydrographical conditions, i.e. temperature, salinity and turbidity data, are given for one year (December 1966 to November 1967). The observations indicate thatE. bengalensts is a continuous breeder and also a fast growing species. The influence of temperature and salinity on its breeding and abundance is discussed.

      While only 12 species of bryozoans occur in the harbour, the number of species occurring in the nearby foreshore localities at Visakhapatnam ranges from 20 to 34. The effect of some factors (pollution, salinity, silting larval type and fouling) which may influence the distribution of bryozoans is discussed.

    • Effect of texture on the food preferences of bait-shy wild rats (Rattus rattus L.) II

      Devendra Bhardwaj Jamil Ahmad Khan

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      Black rats,Rattus rattus L., poisoned with 0·02%zinc phosphide in whole lentil (Lens esculenta) or green gram (Phaseolus aureus) did not accept their whole grains again (bait-shyness). No similar aversion was, however, shown to husked grains of lentil or green gram.

      Apparently alternative textural states of the two pulses have distinctive tastes, and hence poisoning in one form (whole grains) does not affect the preference for the other form (husked grains). It is thus possible to avoid ‘bait-shyness’ by using whole and then husked grains of suck pulses for poisoning this pest.

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