Characterization of bituminous coal is carried out to evaluate the behaviour of coal when it is subjected to different loading or stress conditions such as tensile stress, shear stress and normal stress. Index properties such as microstructure of geomaterial, density, porosity, specific gravity, water absorption, colour andformation that form a set of intrinsic properties have been evaluated and used to classify the bituminous coal. Mechanical properties have been evaluated based on strength characteristics such as quasi-static uniaxial compressive strength, shear strength, and tensile strength and other derived parameters such as normal stress, shear stress, deformation, elastic modulus, shear modulus, maximum stretching hydrostatic pressure, normalized cohesive strength, internal angle of friction, normalized pressure hardening coefficient, pressure hardeningindex, strain rate coefficient, maximum normalized intensity and damage parameters. Numerous material characterisation tests have been performed on bituminous coal to determine the above-mentioned parameters such as triaxial shear tests, large direct shear tests, uniaxial compression tests, split tensile strength tests, water absorption tests, porosity test and X-ray diffraction. Numerical methods have proven to be an important tool in the design and evaluation of safety in mines without involving cumbersome experimental analysis procedures. Finite element-based Software Abaqus has been employed using Holmquist Johnson and Cook model to validate and characterize the constitutive characteristics of bituminous coal. Numerical results of different strength aspects obtained through the study have been found in good agreement with the experimental results having an overall variation in results of less than 15%.