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    • Keywords


      Existence of boundary layer; Nanofluid; Divergent channel; Porous medium; Mass suction/ injection.

    • Abstract


      The steady two-dimensional, laminar, viscous, incompressible boundary layer flow of Cu/Ag-H2O nanofluid in a diverging channel formed by two non-parallel walls in a Darcian porous medium is numerically studied in the presence of mass suction/injection of equal magnitude on both the walls. Here, divergent flow isgenerated by a line source of fluid volume at the intersection of channel walls. Using similarity transformations, the non-linear governing PDEs are transformed into self-similar coupled non-linear ODEs and they are solved numerically with the help of MATLAB-built solver ‘‘bvp4c’’. The conditions for the existence of boundary layer flow structure for nanofluid through divergent channel in porous medium are obtained. The analysis reveals that when the permeability parameter K and nanofluid-volume-fraction-related parameter Φ1 are chosen in a specificmanner such that they satisfy the condition K>2Φ1 then boundary layer flow exists, preventing separation for any mass suction/injection or even in the absence of mass suction/injection. A similar velocity field rises withpermeability parameter, which exhibits opposite behavior with nanoparticle volume fraction. Also temperature increases with nanoparticle volume fraction, permeability parameter, and Eckert number, and decreases with power-law exponent (related to variable wall temperature). Skin-friction coefficient and heat transfer rate for Cu-water nanofluid are stronger when compared with Ag-water nanofluid.

    • Author Affiliations



      1. Department of Mathematics, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, India
      2. 2 Department of Basic and Applied Science, National Institute of Technology, Yupia 791112, India
    • Dates

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