The present study is aimed at ﬁlling the gaps in scientiﬁc understanding of the burnishing process, and also to aid and arrive at technological solutions for the surface modiﬁcations based on burnishing of some of the commonly employed engineering materials. The effects of various burnishing parameters on the surface characteristics, surface microstructure, micro hardness are evaluated, reported and discussed in the case of EN Series steels (EN 8, EN 24 and EN 31), Aluminum alloy (AA6061) and Alpha-beta brass. The burnishing parameters considered for studies principally are burnishing speed, burnishing force, burnishing feed and number of passes. Taguchi technique is employed in the present investigation to identify the most inﬂuencing parameters on surface roughness. Effort is also made to identify the optimal burnishing parameters and the factors for scientiﬁc basis of such optimization. Finally, a brief attempt is made to construct the Burnishing maps with respect to strength level (in this case, average micro hardness of unburnished material).