Recent developments in grinding have opened up new avenues for finishing of hard and brittle materials with nano-surface finish, high tolerance and accuracy. Grinding with superabrasive wheels is an excellent way to produce ultraprecision surface finish. However, superabrasive diamond grits need higher bonding strength while grinding, which metal-bonded grinding wheels can offer. Truing and dressing of the wheels are major problems and they tend to glaze because of wheel loading. When grinding with superabrasive wheels, wheel loading can be avoided by dressing periodically to obtain continuous grinding. Electrolytic inprocess dressing (ELID) is the most suitable process for dressing metal-bonded grinding wheels during the grinding process. Nano-surface finish can be achieved only when chip removal is done at the atomic level. Recent developments of ductile mode machining of hard and brittle materials show that plastically deformed chip removal minimizes the subsurface damage of the workpiece. When chip deformation takes place in the ductile regime, a defect-free nano-surface is possible and it completely eliminates the polishing process. ELID is one of the processes used for atomic level metal removal and nano-surface finish. However, no proper and detailed studies have been carried out to clarify the fundamental characteristics for making this process a robust one. Consequently, an attempt has been made in this study to understand the fundamental characteristics of ELID grinding and their influence on surface finish.