• The Rationale Behind Expressing Hardness of Water as CaCO$_{3}$ Equivalents and Comprehension of Fundamental Relation in Volumetric Analysis Revisited

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    • Keywords


      CaCO$_{3}$ equivalents, volumetric analysis, hardness of water, titration, cations, freshman engineering students and their teachers.

    • Abstract


      There are many books and websites which explain why thehardness of water is expressed as equivalent of CaCO3, butthey are not lucid enough to be comprehensible for first-yearengineering students. An earnest attempt is made in the followingdidactic short communication to comprehend the rationalebehind expressing the hardness of water as CaCO$_{3}$equivalent. Further, freshmen students in their volumetricanalysis calculations are unsure why the number of moles n$_{A}$and n$_{B}$ appear in the basic volumetric relation M$_{A}$V$_{A}$/n$_{A}$ =M$_{B}$V$_{B}$/n$_{B}$, and the same do not appear in another basic volumetricrelation N$_{A}$V$_{A}$ = N$_{B}$V$_{B}$. This article endeavors topresent a lucid account of this aspect—it does not convey anynew concept but ameliorates classroom teaching.

    • Author Affiliations


      R Sanjeev R Veda Vrath Raju Manthena V Jagannadham1

      1. Department of Chemistry Geethanjali College of Engineering and Technology Cheeryal 501 301, Telangana.
    • Dates


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