• Pioneering Works of N. S. Kapany in Biomedical Optics: Live Tissue Imaging, Retinal Photocoagulation, and Optical Oximetry

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    • Keywords


      Dr N. S. Kapany, fibre-optics, hypodermic probe, retinal photocoagulation, oximetry.

    • Abstract


      Narinder Singh Kapany, considered by many as the father of fibre optics, was one of the first scientists to start the field of fibre-optics with ground-breaking demonstrations of optical fibre-based imaging, sensing, and optical communication systems. Although his seminal works in the area of fibre-optics are well-documented, much less is known about his equally important contributions in the development of biomedical optics. This article highlights Kapany’s ground-breaking innovations in pushing the frontiers of biology and medicine by elaborating three selected examples from his work: (i) fibre-optics hypodermic probe for live-tissue imaging, (ii) photocoagulation of retina, and (iii) optical oximetry of blood. We discuss the basics of these ideas and focus on how Kapany overcame many challenges to demonstrate ready-to-use prototypes from scratch. These innovations form precursors to many modern-day instruments, which are essential for current medical applications. Kapany’s life journey is yet another embodiment of how curiosity-driven research can change the course of human history.

    • Author Affiliations


      Biswajit Panda1 Kamal P Singh1

      1. Department of Physical Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Mohali, Sector 81 Knowledge City, Manauli 140 306, India.
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