• How to Design Experiments in Animal Behaviour: 16. Cutting-Edge Research at Trifling Cost

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    • Keywords


      Animal behaviour, low-cost re-search, science funding, grant-free research, democratizing science, diversity in science.

    • Abstract


      I have had multiple aims in writing this series of articles. My primary aim has been to show how simple and innovative experiments can be performed at almost no cost, by nearly anyone, to create significant new knowledge. The history of science shows that this is true in most areas of scientific research, albeit to varying degrees. I have focussed on the field of animal behaviour both because I am more familiar with this field than others, but also because, the field of animal behaviour is especially well-suited for such low-cost research. It has also been my aim, of course, to discuss the princi-ples of ethology (the scientific study of animal behaviour), through the medium of these experiments. My motivation in writing this series is to bring social prestige to low-cost research, make the practice of science more inclusive and democratic, and empower large numbers of people to become knowledge producers rather than merely remain knowledge consumers. The people I especially have in mind are, less-endowed sections of society, including, but not restricted to, under developed countries, marginalised institutions and individuals, students, the general public, amateurs, and all those with little or no access to large research grants and sophisti-cated laboratory facilities, for whatever reason.Note: Some passages in this article are reprinted from Suggested Readings [4, 5, 15 and 16].

    • Author Affiliations


      Raghavendra Gadagkar1

      1. Centre for Ecological Sciences Indian Institute of Science Bangalore 560 012, India.
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