Microscopic thermal machines that are of dimensions of around few hundred nanometres have been the subject of intense study over the last two decades. Recently, it has been shown that the efficiency of such thermal engines can be enhanced by using active Ornstein–Uhlenbeck particles (AOUP). In this work, we numerically study the behaviour of tiny engines and refrigerators that use an active run-and-tumble particle as the working system.We find that the results for the engine mode are in sharp contrast with those of engines using AOUP, thus showing that the nature of activity has a strong influence on the qualitative behaviours of thermal machines for non-equilibrium cycles. The efficiency of an engine using a run-and-tumble particle is found to be smaller in general than a passive microscopic engine. However, when the applied protocol is time-reversed, the resulting microscopic refrigerator can have a much higher coefficient of performance under these conditions. The effect of variation of different parametersof the coefficient of performance has been explored. A non-monotonic variation of coefficient of performance with active force has been found.
Volume 96, 2022
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